Document


As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 1, 2018
Registration No. 333-
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
 
CARBONITE, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware
 
33-1111329
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
 
 
 
Two Avenue de Lafayette
Boston, Massachusetts 02111
(617) 587-1100

 
Mohamad Ali
President and Chief Executive Officer
Carbonite, Inc.
Two Avenue de Lafayette
Boston, Massachusetts 02111
(617) 587-1100

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

Copies to:
Susan E. Pravda, Esq.
Paul D. Broude, Esq.
Foley & Lardner LLP
111 Huntington Avenue
Boston, Massachusetts 02199
Telephone: (617) 342-4000
 
Danielle Sheer, Esq.
General Counsel and Secretary
Carbonite, Inc.
Two Avenue de Lafayette
Boston, Massachusetts 02111
Telephone: (617) 587-1100
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement.
If the only securities being registered on this form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. ¨
If any of the securities being registered on this form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box. ý 
If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨
If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨
If this form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ý 
If this form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
 ¨
Accelerated filer
 ý
Non-accelerated filer
 ¨
Smaller reporting company
 ¨
Emerging growth company
 ¨
 
 
 
 
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
 
 
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for comply with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act. ¨
 





CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
 
 
 
 
 
Title of Each Class of Securities to be Registered
Amount
to be
Registered (1)
Proposed Maximum Offering Price
per Share (1)(2)
Proposed Maximum Aggregate Offering Price (1)
Amount of Registration Fee (1)
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share (2)
 

 
 
Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share (2)
 
 
 
 
Debt Securities
 
 
 
 
Warrants
 
 
 
 
Units
 
 
 
 
(1)
An indeterminate aggregate initial offering price or number of the securities of each identified class is being registered as may from time to time be offered at indeterminate prices. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable on exercise, conversion or exchange of other securities or that are issued in units. In accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r), the registrant is deferring payment of all of the registration fee. In addition, securities registered hereunder may be sold either separately or as units comprised of more than one type of security registered hereunder.
(2)
Includes an indeterminate number of shares of common stock or preferred stock as may be sold from time to time, at indeterminate prices.




PROSPECTUS
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Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
Warrants
Units
We may from time to time offer and sell, in one or more series or issuances and on terms that we will determine at the time of the offering, any combination of common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, and warrants, either separately or in units.
We will specify in the accompanying prospectus supplement the terms of the securities to be offered and sold. We may sell these securities to or through underwriters or dealers and also to other purchasers or through agents. We will set forth the names of any underwriters, dealers or agents in the accompanying prospectus supplement.
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “CARB.” On May 30, 2018, the last reported sale price of the shares of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market was $39.15 per share.
In addition, selling shareholders to be named in a prospectus supplement may offer and sell from time to time shares of our common stock in such amounts as set forth in a prospectus supplement. Unless otherwise set forth in a prospectus supplement, we will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock by any selling shareholders.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” on page 1 of this prospectus and any other risk factors included in any accompanying prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to purchase these securities.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
This prospectus may not be used to consummate sales of securities unless, to the extent required by applicable law, it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.
The date of this prospectus is June 1, 2018.







Table of Contents

 
Page
You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or any “free writing prospectus” that we may authorize to be delivered to you. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein are accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. Neither this prospectus nor any accompanying prospectus supplement shall constitute an offer or solicitation by anyone in any jurisdiction in which such offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making such offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation.




ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell any combination of the securities registered in one or more offerings. We have provided to you in this prospectus a general description of the securities that we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will, to the extent required by law, provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. We may also add, update or change in any accompanying prospectus supplement or any “free writing prospectus” that we may authorize to be delivered to you any of the information contained in this prospectus. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus and the prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement, provided that if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date - for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement - the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement. This prospectus, together with any accompanying prospectus supplement and any “free writing prospectus” that we may authorize to be delivered to you, includes all material information relating to the offering of our securities.
As permitted by the rules and regulations of the SEC, the registration statement, of which this prospectus forms a part, includes additional information not contained in this prospectus. You may read the registration statement and the other reports we file with the SEC at the SEC’s web site or at the SEC’s offices described below under the heading “Where You Can Find Additional Information.”
SUMMARY
Carbonite, Inc.
Carbonite, Inc. is a Delaware corporation incorporated on February 10, 2005. We provide backup, disaster recovery, high availability and workload migration technology (the “Carbonite Data Protection Platform”). The Carbonite Data Protection Platform supports businesses in locations around the world with secure global cloud infrastructure. We founded Carbonite on one simple idea: all computers need to be backed up, and in our always connected and highly mobile world, cloud backup is the ideal approach.
Corporate Information
Our principal executive offices are located at Carbonite, Inc., Two Avenue de Lafayette, Boston, Massachusetts 02111. Our telephone number is (617) 587-1100. Our website address is www.carbonite.com. We have included our website address as an inactive textual reference only. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus.
In this prospectus, unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, references to “Carbonite,” “the Company”, “we,” “us” and “our” and similar references refer to Carbonite, Inc. CARBONITE, the Carbonite logo and other trademarks of Carbonite appearing in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement are the property of Carbonite. Solely for convenience, our trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement are without the ® or tm symbol, as applicable, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights to these trademarks and trade names. Trade names and trademarks of other companies appearing in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement are the property of the respective holders.
RISK FACTORS
An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, including the risk factors set forth in the documents and reports filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference herein, before you make an investment decision pursuant to this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. These risks include the risk factors under the heading “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017 on file with the SEC, as revised or supplemented by our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC since the filing of our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, all of which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our business operations.



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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus, any prospectus supplement, and the documents incorporated by reference herein contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties, as well as assumptions that, if they never materialize or prove incorrect, could cause our results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. All statements that are not purely historical are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or Exchange Act. Forward-looking statements are often identified by the use of words such as, but not limited to, “anticipate,” “believe,” “can,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “will,” “plan,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” and similar expressions or variations intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.
We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions, or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. We have included important factors in the cautionary statements included and incorporated by reference in this prospectus that we believe could cause actual results or events to differ materially from the forward-looking statements that we make. See “Risk Factors” for more information. You should consider these factors and other cautionary statements made in this prospectus and in the documents we incorporate by reference as being applicable to all related forward-looking statements wherever they appear in the prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference. Unless specifically indicated, our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures, or investments that we may make. Except as required by law, we do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements.
RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES
Our ratio of earnings to fixed charges for each of the five most recently completed fiscal years and any required interim periods will each be specified in a prospectus supplement or in a document that we file with the SEC and incorporate by reference pertaining to the issuance, if any, by us of debt securities in the future.
USE OF PROCEEDS
Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities from offerings under this prospectus for general corporate purposes, which may include the development of our products and services; our repurchase of outstanding stock of the Company; the acquisition of products, technologies, or businesses; working capital; and capital expenditures. We may set forth additional information on the use of proceeds from the sale of securities that we offer under this prospectus in a prospectus supplement relating to the specific offering. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for the foregoing purposes. As a result, our management will have broad discretion in the allocation of the net proceeds. Pending use of the net proceeds, we intend to invest the proceeds in a variety of capital preservation instruments, which may include money market accounts and government and government agency securities. All investments, if any, will be made in accordance with the Company’s investment policy as approved by our board of directors.
SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER
The following is a general description of the terms and provisions of the securities we may offer and sell by this prospectus. These summaries are not meant to be complete. This prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement will contain the material terms and conditions of each security. Any prospectus supplement may add, update or change the terms and conditions of the securities as described in this prospectus.
DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK
The following description of our common stock, together with any additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of our common stock that we may offer under this prospectus. For the complete terms of our common stock, please refer to our certificate of incorporation, which is an exhibit to our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed on November 10, 2011, and bylaws, which is an exhibit to Amendment No. 2 to our Registration Statement on Form S-1 filed on July 13, 2011. The terms of our common stock may also be affected by Delaware law.
Under our certificate of incorporation, we are authorized to issue 45,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, of which 30,655,448 shares of common stock were issued and 28,678,891 shares of common stock were outstanding as of May 30, 2018.

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Dividend rights
Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding preferred stock, holders of our common stock are entitled to receive such dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our board of directors out of legally available funds.
Voting rights
Each holder of our common stock is entitled to one vote for each share on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders, including the election of directors. Our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors. Accordingly, holders of a majority of the voting shares are able to elect all of the directors.
Liquidation
In the event of our liquidation, dissolution, or winding up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities and the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any then outstanding shares of preferred stock.
Rights and preferences
Holders of our common stock have no preemptive, conversion, subscription or other rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. The rights, preferences, and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designate in the future.
The Nasdaq Global Market Listing
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “CARB.” As of May 30, 2018, the closing price per share of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market was $39.15.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.
DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK
The following description of our preferred stock, together with any additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of our preferred stock that we offer under this prospectus. For the complete terms of our preferred stock, please refer to our certificate of incorporation, which is an exhibit to our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed on November 10, 2011, and bylaws, which is an exhibit to Amendment No. 2 to our Registration Statement on Form S-1 filed on July 13, 2011, as well as any certificate of designation or amendment to our certificate of incorporation that will specify the terms of the preferred stock being offered, and which will be filed or incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement before the preferred stock is issued. The terms of our preferred stock may also be affected by Delaware law.
Under our certificate of incorporation, we are authorized to issue 6,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share, none of which were issued and outstanding as of June 1, 2018. Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our stockholders, to issue shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the rights, preferences, privileges, and restrictions thereof.
Terms of Preferred Stock to Be Offered
Unless provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the shares of our preferred stock to be issued will have no preemptive rights. The applicable prospectus supplement offering our preferred stock will furnish the following information with respect to the preferred stock offered by that prospectus supplement:
the title and stated value of the preferred stock;
the number of shares of preferred stock to be issued and the offering price of the preferred stock;
any dividend rights;

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any dividend rates, periods, or payment dates, or methods of calculation of dividends applicable to the preferred stock;
the date from which distributions on the preferred stock shall accumulate, if applicable;
the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock, including the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof);
any right to convert the preferred stock into a different type of security;
any voting rights attributable to the preferred stock;
any rights and preferences upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;
any terms of redemption;
the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any, for the preferred stock;
the provisions for a sinking fund, if any, for the preferred stock;
any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange;
a discussion of federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;
the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to distribution rights (including whether any liquidation preference as to the preferred stock will be treated as a liability for purposes of determining the availability of assets for distributions to holders of stock ranking junior to the shares of preferred stock as to distribution rights);
any limitations on issuance of any series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on parity with the series of preferred stock being offered as to distribution rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution, or winding up of our affairs; and
any other specific terms, preferences, rights, limitations, or restrictions of the preferred stock.
Rank
Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, shares of our preferred stock will rank, with respect to payment of distributions and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution, or winding up, and allocation of our earnings and losses:
senior to all classes or series of our common stock and to all of our equity securities ranking junior to the preferred stock;
on parity with all equity securities issued by us, the terms of which specifically provide that these equity securities rank on parity with the preferred stock; and
junior to all equity securities issued by us, the terms of which specifically provide that these equity securities rank senior to the preferred stock.
Distributions
Subject to any preferential rights of any outstanding stock or series of stock, our preferred stockholders are entitled to receive distributions when, as, and if declared by our board of directors, out of legally available funds and to share pro rata based on the number of shares of preferred stock, common stock, and other parity equity securities outstanding. The rates and dates of payment of dividends will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to the applicable series of preferred stock. Dividends will be payable to holders of record of preferred stock as they appear on our books or, if applicable, the records of the depositary referred to below on the record dates fixed by the board of directors. Dividends on a series of preferred stock may be cumulative or noncumulative.
We may not declare, pay, or set apart for payment dividends on the preferred stock unless full dividends on other series of preferred stock that rank on an equal or senior basis have been paid or sufficient funds have been set apart for payment for:
all prior dividend periods of other series of preferred stock that pay dividends on a cumulative basis; or
the immediately preceding dividend period of other series of preferred stock that pay dividends on a noncumulative basis.

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Partial dividends declared on shares of preferred stock and each other series of preferred stock ranking on an equal basis as to dividends will be declared pro rata. A pro rata declaration means that the ratio of dividends declared per share to accrued dividends per share will be the same for each series of preferred stock. Similarly, we may not declare, pay, or set apart for payment non-stock dividends or make other payments on the common stock or any other of our stock ranking junior to the preferred stock until full dividends on the preferred stock have been paid or set apart for payment for:
all prior dividend periods if the preferred stock pays dividends on a cumulative basis; or
the immediately preceding dividend period if the preferred stock pays dividends on a noncumulative basis.
Voting Rights
Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of our preferred stock will not have any voting rights.
Liquidation Preference
Upon the voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution, or winding up of our affairs, before any distribution or payment shall be made to the holders of any common stock or any other class or series of stock ranking junior to the preferred stock in our distribution of assets upon any liquidation, dissolution, or winding up, the holders of each series of our preferred stock will be entitled to receive, after payment or provision for payment of our debts and other liabilities, out of our assets legally available for distribution to stockholders, liquidating distributions in the amount of the liquidation preference per share (set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement), plus an amount, if applicable, equal to all distributions accrued and unpaid thereon (which shall not include any accumulation in respect of unpaid distributions for prior distribution periods if the preferred stock does not have a cumulative distribution). Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, after payment of the full amount of the liquidating distributions to which they are entitled, the holders of preferred stock will have no right or claim to any of our remaining assets. In the event that, upon our voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution, or winding up, the legally available assets are insufficient to pay the amount of the liquidating distributions on all of our outstanding preferred stock and the corresponding amounts payable on all of our other classes or series of equity securities ranking on parity with the preferred stock in the distribution of assets upon liquidation, dissolution, or winding up, then the holders of our preferred stock and all other such classes or series of equity securities will share ratably in the distribution of assets in proportion to the full liquidating distributions to which they would otherwise be respectively entitled.
If the liquidating distributions are made in full to all holders of preferred stock, our remaining assets will be distributed among the holders of any other classes or series of equity securities ranking junior to the preferred stock upon liquidation, dissolution, or winding up, according to their respective rights and preferences and in each case according to their respective number of shares of stock.
Conversion Rights
The terms and conditions, if any, upon which shares of any series of preferred stock are convertible into other securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. These terms will include the amount and type of security into which the shares of preferred stock are convertible, the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof), the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at the option of the holders of the preferred stock or us, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price, and provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption of that preferred stock.
Redemption
If so provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, our preferred stock will be subject to mandatory redemption or redemption at our option, in whole or in part, in each case upon the terms, at the times, and at the redemption prices set forth in any such prospectus supplement. Unless we default in the payment of the redemption price, dividends will cease to accrue after the redemption date on shares of preferred stock called for redemption and all rights of holders of such shares will terminate, except for the right to receive the redemption price. No series of preferred stock will receive the benefit of a sinking fund except as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Registrar and Transfer Agent
The registrar and transfer agent for our preferred stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

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If our board of directors decides to issue any preferred stock, it may discourage or make more difficult a merger, tender offer, business combination, or proxy contest, assumption of control by a holder of a large block of our securities, or the removal of incumbent management, even if these events were favorable to the interests of stockholders. Our board of directors, without stockholder approval, may issue preferred stock with voting and conversion rights and dividend and liquidation preferences that may adversely affect the holders of our other equity or debt securities.
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
The following description of our debt, together with any additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of our debt securities that we offer under this prospectus. When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a prospectus supplement. The following description of debt securities will apply to the debt securities offered by this prospectus unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement for a particular series of debt securities may specify different or additional terms.
We may issue “senior,” “senior subordinated,” or “subordinated,” debt securities. “Senior securities” will be direct obligations of ours and will rank equally and ratably in right of payment with other indebtedness of ours that is not subordinated. “Senior subordinated securities” will be subordinated in right of payment to the prior payment in full of senior indebtedness, as defined in the applicable prospectus supplement, and may rank equally and ratably with any other senior subordinated indebtedness. “Subordinated securities” will be subordinated in right of payment to senior subordinated securities.
We need not issue all debt securities of one series at the same time. Unless we provide otherwise, we may reopen a series, without the consent of the holders of such series, for issuances of additional securities of that series.
We will issue the senior debt securities and senior subordinated debt securities under a senior indenture, which we will enter into with the trustee to be named in the senior indenture, and we will issue the subordinated debt securities under a subordinated indenture, which we will enter into with the trustee to be named in the subordinated indenture. We use the term “indenture” or “indentures” to refer to both the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture. Each indenture will be subject to and governed by the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act, and we may supplement the indenture from time to time. Any trustee under any indenture may resign or be removed with respect to one or more series of debt securities, and we may appoint a successor trustee to act with respect to that series. We have filed a form of indenture between us as the issuer, and a U.S. banking institution to be named as trustee in a prospectus supplement and/or other offering material as the indenture trustee, as an exhibit to this registration statement, of which this prospectus forms a part. The terms of the senior indenture and subordinated indenture will be substantially similar, except that the subordinated indenture will include provisions pertaining to the subordination of the subordinated debt securities and senior subordinated debt securities to the senior debt securities and any other of our senior securities. The following statements relating to the debt securities and the indenture are summaries only, are subject to change, and are qualified in their entirety to the detailed provisions of the indenture, any supplemental indenture, and the discussion contained in any prospectus supplements.
General
The debt securities will be our direct obligations. We may issue debt securities from time to time and in one or more series as our board of directors may establish by resolution or as we may establish in one or more supplemental indentures. The particular terms of each series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to the series. We may issue debt securities with terms different from those of debt securities that we previously issued.
We may issue debt securities from time to time and in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. We will set forth in a prospectus supplement, relating to any series of debt securities being offered, the initial offering price and the following terms of the debt securities:
the title of the debt securities;
the series designation and whether they are senior securities, senior subordinated securities, or subordinated securities;
the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities and any limit on the aggregate amount of the series of debt securities;

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the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount) at which we will issue the debt securities and, if other than the principal amount of the debt securities, the portion of the principal amount of the debt securities payable upon the maturity of the debt securities;
the date or dates on which we will pay the principal on the debt securities;
the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or the method used to determine the rate or rates (including any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index, or financial index) at which the debt securities will bear interest, the date or dates from which interest will accrue, the date or dates on which interest will commence and be payable, and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;
the place where principal, interest, and any additional amounts will be payable and where the debt securities can be surrendered for transfer, exchange, or conversion;
the terms, if any, by which holders of the debt securities may convert or exchange the debt securities for our common stock, preferred stock, or any other security or property;
if convertible, the initial conversion price, the conversion period, and any other terms governing such conversion;
any subordination provisions or limitations relating to the debt securities;
any sinking fund requirements;
any obligation we have to redeem or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a holder of debt securities;
the dates on which and the price or prices at which we will repurchase the debt securities at the option of the holders of debt securities and other detailed terms and provisions of these repurchase obligations;
the denominations in which the debt securities will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;
the portion of principal amount of the debt securities payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date, if other than the principal amount;
whether we will issue the debt securities in certificated or book-entry form;
whether the debt securities will be in registered or bearer form and, if in registered form, the denominations if other than in even multiples of $1,000 and, if in bearer form, the denominations and terms and conditions relating thereto;
the designation of the currency, currencies, or currency units in which payment of principal of, premium, and interest on the debt securities will be made;
if payments of principal of, and interest and any additional amounts on, the debt securities will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the debt securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to these payments will be determined;
the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, and interest and any additional amounts on, the debt securities will be determined, if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies other than that in which the debt securities are denominated or designated to be payable or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index, or financial index;
any applicability of the defeasance provisions described in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement;
whether and under what circumstances, if any, we will pay additional amounts on any debt securities in respect of any tax, assessment, or governmental charge and, if so, whether we will have the option to redeem the debt securities instead of making this payment;
any addition to or change in the events of default described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities and any change in the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;
any addition to or change in the covenants described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

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if the debt securities are to be issued upon the exercise of debt warrants, the time, manner, and place for them to be authenticated and delivered;
any securities exchange on which we will list the debt securities;
any restrictions on transfer, sale, or other assignment;
any provisions relating to any security provided for the debt securities;
any provisions relating to any guarantee of the debt securities;
any other terms of the debt securities, which may modify or delete any provision of the indenture as it applies to that series; and
any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents, or other agents with respect to the debt securities.
We may issue debt securities that are exchangeable for or convertible into shares of our common stock or other securities or property. The terms, if any, on which the debt securities may be exchanged for or converted into shares of our common stock or other securities or property will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Such terms may include provisions for conversion, either mandatory, at the option of the holder, or at our option, in which case the number of shares of common stock or other securities or property to be received by the holders of debt securities would be calculated as of a time and in the manner stated in the applicable prospectus supplement.
We may issue debt securities at less than the principal amount payable upon maturity. We refer to these securities as “original issue discount securities.” If material or applicable, we will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement special U.S. federal income tax, accounting, and other considerations applicable to original issue discount securities.
If we denominate the purchase price of any of the debt securities in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, or if the principal of, and interest and any additional amounts on, any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, we will provide you with information on the restrictions, elections, general tax considerations, specific terms, and other information with respect to that issue of debt securities and such foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Except as may be set forth in any prospectus supplement relating to the debt securities, an indenture will not contain any other provisions that would limit our ability to incur indebtedness or that would afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event of a highly leveraged or similar transaction involving us or in the event of a change in control. You should review carefully the applicable prospectus supplement for information with respect to events of default and any covenants applicable to the debt securities being offered.
Payments and Paying Agents
Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.
We will pay principal of, and interest and any additional amounts on, the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that, unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may make interest payments by check, which we will mail to the holder, or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in a prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series.
Form, Transfer, and Exchange
Each debt security will be represented by either one or more global securities registered in the name of The Depository Trust Company, as depositary, or a nominee of the depositary (as a “book-entry debt security”), or a certificate issued in definitive registered form (as a “certificated debt security”), as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as described under “Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System” below, book-entry debt securities will not be issuable in certificated form.

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Certificated Debt Securities
You may transfer or exchange certificated debt securities at the trustee’s office or paying agencies in accordance with the terms of the indenture. No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange.
You may transfer certificated debt securities and the right to receive the principal of, and interest and any additional amounts on, certificated debt securities only by surrendering the old certificate representing those certificated debt securities and either we or the trustee will reissue the old certificate to the new holder, or we or the trustee will issue a new certificate to the new holder.
Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System
Each global debt security representing book-entry debt securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, the depositary, and registered in the name of the depositary or a nominee of the depositary. Ownership of beneficial interests in book-entry debt securities will be limited to persons that have accounts with the depositary for the related global debt security, whom we refer to as participants, or persons that may hold interests through participants.
Except as described in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement, beneficial owners of book-entry debt securities will not be entitled to have securities registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of a certificate in definitive form representing securities, and will not be considered the owners or holders of those securities under the indenture. Accordingly, to exercise any rights of a holder under the indenture, each person beneficially owning book-entry debt securities must rely on the procedures of the depositary for the related global debt security and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which that person owns its interest.
We understand, however, that under existing industry practice, the depositary will authorize the persons on whose behalf it holds a global debt security to exercise certain rights of holders of debt securities, and the indenture provides that we, the trustee, and our respective agents will treat as the holder of a debt security the persons specified in a written statement of the depositary with respect to that global debt security for purposes of obtaining any consents or directions required to be given by holders of the debt securities pursuant to the indenture.
We will make payments of principal of, and interest and any additional amounts on, book-entry debt securities to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered holder of the related global debt security. We, the trustee, and any other agent of ours or agent of the trustee will not have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in a global debt security or for maintaining, supervising, or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests.
Any certificated debt securities issued in exchange for a global debt security will be registered in such name or names as the depositary shall instruct the trustee. We expect that such instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of book-entry debt securities relating to such global debt security.
For additional discussion of book entry and certificated securities, see the section entitled “Legal Ownership of Securities” included in this prospectus. We have obtained the foregoing information in this section and the section entitled “Legal Ownership of Securities” section concerning the depositary and the depositary’s book-entry system from sources we believe to be reliable. We take no responsibility for the depositary’s performance of its obligations under the rules and regulations governing its operations.
No Protection in the Event of a Change in Control
Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control).
Covenants
Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any restrictive covenants, including covenants restricting us or any of our subsidiaries from incurring, issuing, assuming, or guaranteeing any

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indebtedness secured by a lien on any of our or our subsidiaries’ property or capital stock or restricting us or any of our subsidiaries from entering into any sale and leaseback transactions.
Merger, Consolidation, and Sale of Assets
Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may not merge with or into or consolidate with, or convey, transfer, or lease all or substantially all of our properties and assets to, any person (a “successor person”), and we may not permit any person to merge into, or convey, transfer, or lease its properties and assets substantially as an entirety to us, unless the following applies:
either (a) the Company is the surviving entity or (b) the successor person is a corporation, partnership, trust, or other entity organized and validly existing under the laws of any United States domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes our obligations on the debt securities and under the indenture;
immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no event of default, and no event that, after notice or lapse of time, or both, would become an event of default, shall have occurred and be continuing under the indenture; and
certain other conditions that may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement are met.
This covenant would not apply to any recapitalization transaction, a change in control of us, or a transaction in which we incur a large amount of additional debt unless the transactions or change in control included a merger, consolidation, or transfer or lease of substantially all of our assets. Except as may be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, there are no covenants or other provisions in the indenture providing for a “put” right or increased interest or that would otherwise afford holders of debt securities additional protection in the event of a recapitalization transaction, a change in control of us, or a transaction in which we incur a large amount of additional debt.
Events of Default Under the Indenture
Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, an “event of default” will mean, with respect to any series of debt securities, any of the following:
a default in the payment of any interest upon any debt security of that series when it becomes due and payable and continuance of that default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of such payment is deposited by us with the trustee or with a paying agent before the expiration of the 30-day period);
default in the payment of principal of, and any other amounts due on, any debt security of that series when due and payable either at maturity, redemption, or otherwise;
default in the deposit of any sinking fund payment, when and as due in respect of any debt security of that series;
default in the performance or breach of any other covenant or warranty by us in the indenture (other than a covenant or warranty that has been included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than that series) or in the debt security, which default continues uncured for a period of 60 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or we and the trustee receive written notice from the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series as provided in the indenture;
we, pursuant to or within the meaning of any applicable bankruptcy law, commence a voluntary case, consent to the entry of an order for relief against us in an involuntary case, consent to the appointment of a custodian for all or substantially all of our property, make a general assignment for the benefit of our creditors, or admit in writing our inability generally to pay our debts as they become due; or, similarly, a court enters an order or decree under any applicable bankruptcy law that provides for relief against us in an involuntary case, appoints a custodian for all or substantially all of our properties, or orders our liquidation (and the order remains in effect for 60 days); and
any other event of default provided with respect to debt securities of that series that is included in any supplemental indenture or is described in the applicable prospectus supplement accompanying this prospectus.
No event of default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency, or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an event of default with respect to any other series of debt securities. An event of default may also be an event of default under our bank credit agreements or other debt securities in existence from time to time and under certain guaranties by us of any subsidiary indebtedness. In addition, certain events of default or an

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acceleration under the indenture may also be an event of default under some of our other indebtedness outstanding from time to time.
Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, if an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing (other than certain events of our bankruptcy, insolvency, or reorganization), then the trustee or the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by written notice to us (and to the trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, of all debt securities of that series. In the case of an event of default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency, or reorganization, the principal (or such specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, of all outstanding debt securities will become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act by the trustee or any holder of outstanding debt securities.
At any time after an acceleration with respect to debt securities of a series has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may cancel the acceleration and annul its consequences if the rescission would not conflict with any judgment or decree and if all existing events of default with respect to that series have been cured or waived except nonpayment of principal (or such lesser amount) or interest that has become due solely because of the acceleration.
The indenture also provides that the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may waive any past default with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default involving the following:
our failure to pay the principal of, and interest and any additional amounts on, any debt security; or
a covenant or provision contained in the indenture that cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of each outstanding debt security affected by the default.
The trustee is generally required to give notice to the holders of debt securities of each affected series within 90 days of a default actually known to a responsible officer of the trustee unless the default has been cured or waived. The indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any series of any default or event of default (except in payment on any debt securities of that series) with respect to debt securities of that series if it in good faith determines that withholding notice is in the interest of the holders of those debt securities.
Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the indenture will provide that the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture at the request or discretion of any holder of any such outstanding debt securities unless the trustee receives indemnity satisfactory to it against any loss, liability, or expense. Subject to certain rights of the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method, and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of that series. The trustee may, however, refuse to follow any discretion that conflicts with the indenture or any law or which may be unduly prejudicial to the holders of the debt securities of the applicable series not joining in the discretion.
Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, no holder of any debt security of any series will have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:
that holder has previously given to the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default with respect to debt securities of that series; and
the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and offered reasonable indemnity, to the trustee to institute such proceeding as trustee, and the trustee shall not have received from the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series a direction inconsistent with that request and has failed to institute the proceeding within 60 days.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, except as provided in the subordination provisions, if any, the holder of any debt security will have an absolute and unconditional right to receive payment of the principal of, and any interest or additional amounts on, that debt security on or after the due dates expressed in that debt security and to institute suit for the enforcement of payment.

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The indenture requires us, within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year, to furnish to the trustee a certificate as to compliance with the indenture, or, in the event of noncompliance, specify the noncompliance and the nature and status of the noncompliance.
Modification of Indenture and Waiver
Except as specified below, modifications and amendments to the indenture require the approval of not less than a majority in principal amount of our outstanding debt securities.
Changes Requiring the Unanimous Approval
We and the trustee may not make any modification or amendment to the indenture without the consent of the holder of each affected debt security then outstanding if that amendment will have any of the following results:
reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest, including default interest, on any debt security;
reduce the principal of or any additional amounts on or change the fixed maturity of any debt security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation with respect to any series of debt securities;
reduce the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;
waive a default in the payment of the principal of, and interest or any additional amounts on, any debt security, except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of that series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from that acceleration;
make the principal of, or interest or any additional amounts on, any debt security payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security;
change the place of payment on a debt security;
change the currency or currencies of payment of the principal of, and any premium, make-whole payment, interest, or additional amounts on, any debt security;
impair the right to initiate suit for the enforcement of any payment on or with respect to any debt security;
reduce the percentage of holders of debt securities whose consent is needed to modify or amend an indenture, to waive compliance with certain provisions of an indenture, or to waive certain defaults;
reduce the percentage of the holders of outstanding debt securities of any series necessary to modify or amend the indenture, to waive compliance with provisions of the indenture or defaults and their consequences under the indenture, or to reduce the quorum or voting requirements contained in the indenture;
make any change that adversely affects the right to convert or exchange any debt security other than as permitted by the indenture or decrease the conversion or exchange rate or increase the conversion or exchange price of any such debt security;
waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt security; or
make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, the right of holders of debt securities to receive payment of the principal of, and interest and any additional amount on, those debt securities, the right of holders to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment, or the right of holders to waive past defaults.
Changes Not Requiring Approval of Debt Holders
We and the trustee may modify or amend an indenture, without the consent of any holder of debt securities, for any of the following purposes:
to evidence the succession of another person to us as obligor under the indenture;

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to add to our existing covenants additional covenants for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities, or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture;
to add events of default for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities;
to add or change any provisions of the indenture to facilitate the issuance of, or to liberalize the terms of, debt securities in bearer form, or to permit or facilitate the issuance of debt securities in uncertificated form, provided that this action will not adversely affect the interests of the holders of the debt securities of any series in any material respect;
to add, change, or eliminate any provisions of the indenture, provided that any addition, change, or elimination (a) shall neither (i) apply to any debt security of any series created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture and entitled to the benefit of such provision nor (ii) modify the rights of the holder of any debt security with respect to such provision, or (b) shall become effective only when there are no outstanding debt securities;
to establish additional series of debt securities;
to secure previously unsecured debt securities;
to establish the form or terms of debt securities of any series, including the provisions and procedures, if applicable, for the conversion or exchange of the debt securities into our common stock, preferred stock, or other securities or property;
to evidence and provide for the acceptance or appointment of a successor trustee or facilitate the administration of the trusts under the indenture by more than one trustee;
to make any provision with respect to the conversion or exchange of rights of holders pursuant to the requirements of the indenture;
to cure any ambiguity, defect, or inconsistency in the indenture, provided that the action does not adversely affect the interests of holders of debt securities of any series issued under the indenture;
to close the indenture with respect to the authentication and delivery of additional series of debt securities or to qualify, or maintain qualification of, the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act; or
to supplement any of the provisions of the indenture to the extent necessary to permit or facilitate defeasance and discharge of any series of debt securities, provided that the action shall not adversely affect the interests of the holders of the debt securities of any series in any material respect.
A vote by holders of debt securities will not be required for clarifications and certain other changes that would not adversely affect holders of the debt securities.
Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances
Legal Defeasance
Unless the terms of the applicable series of debt securities provide otherwise, we may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the debt securities of any series (except for certain obligations to register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series; to replace stolen, lost, or mutilated debt securities of the series; and to maintain paying agencies and certain provisions relating to the treatment of funds held by paying agents). We will be so discharged upon the deposit with the trustee, in trust, of money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. dollars, foreign government obligations (as described at the end of this section), that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient to pay and discharge each installment of principal, interest, and any additional amounts on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of such payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities.
This discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the U.S. Internal Revenue Service a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable U.S. federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that holders of the debt securities of such series will not recognize income, gain, or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance, and discharge and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the

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same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance, and discharge had not occurred.
Defeasance of Certain Covenants
Unless the terms of the applicable series of debt securities provide otherwise, upon compliance with certain conditions, we may omit to comply with the restrictive covenants contained in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants contained in the applicable prospectus supplement.
The conditions include, among others, the following:
depositing with the trustee money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. dollars, foreign government obligations, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants, to pay principal, interest, and any additional amounts on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities; and
delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain, or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax in the same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred.
Covenant Defeasance and Events of Default
If we exercise our option, as described above, not to comply with certain covenants of the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities, and the debt securities of that series are declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any event of default, the amount of money and/or U.S. government obligations or foreign government obligations on deposit with the trustee will be sufficient to pay amounts due on the debt securities of that series at the time of their stated maturity but may not be sufficient to pay amounts due on the debt securities of that series at the time of the acceleration resulting from the event of default. However, we will remain liable for those payments.
“Foreign government obligations” means, with respect to debt securities of any series that are denominated in a currency other than United States dollars:
direct obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged, which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof; or
obligations of a person controlled or supervised by or acting as an agency or instrumentality of that government, the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by that government, which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.
Guarantees
Our payment obligations under any series of debt securities may be guaranteed by us or one or more of our subsidiaries. The terms of any such guarantee will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Subordination
We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms and conditions, if any, upon which any series of senior subordinated securities or subordinated securities is subordinated to debt securities of another series or to other indebtedness of ours. The terms will include a description of the following:
the indebtedness ranking senior to the debt securities being offered; or
any restrictions on payments to the holders of the debt securities being offered while a default with respect to the senior indebtedness is continuing;
any restrictions on payments to the holders of the debt securities being offered following an event of default; and

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provisions requiring holders of the debt securities being offered to remit some payments to holders of senior indebtedness.
Conversion and Exchange Rights
The terms on which debt securities of any series may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock, preferred stock, or other securities or property of our company will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. These terms will include the following:
the conversion or exchange price, or the manner of calculating the price;
the exchange or conversion period;
whether the conversion or exchange is mandatory, or voluntary at the option of the holder, or at our option;
any restrictions on conversion or exchange in the event of redemption of the debt securities and any restrictions on conversion or exchange; and
the means of calculating the number of shares of our common stock, preferred stock, or other securities or property of our company to be received by the holders of debt securities.
The conversion or exchange price of any debt securities of any series that are convertible into our common stock or preferred stock may be adjusted for any stock dividends, stock splits, reclassification, combinations, or similar transactions, as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Redemption of Debt Securities
The debt securities may be subject to optional or mandatory redemption on terms and conditions described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Subject to such terms, we may opt at any time to partially or entirely redeem the debt securities.
If less than all the debt securities of any series are to be redeemed or purchased in an offer to purchase at any time, the trustee will select the debt securities of that series to be redeemed or purchased as follows: (1) if the securities of such series are listed on any national securities exchange, in compliance with the requirements of the principal national securities exchange on which the debt securities of that series are listed, or (2) if the debt securities of that series are not listed on a national securities exchange, on a pro rata basis, by lot, or by such other method as the trustee deems fair and appropriate.
Except as otherwise provided as to any particular series of debt securities, at least 30 days but not more than 60 days before a redemption date, we or the trustee will mail a notice of redemption to each holder whose debt securities are to be redeemed. From and after notice has been given as provided in the applicable indenture, if funds for the redemption of any debt securities called for redemption shall have been made available on the redemption date, the debt securities will cease to bear interest on the date fixed for the redemption specified in the notice, and the only right of the holders of the debt securities will be to receive payment of the redemption price.
Governing Law
The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the state of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
General
We may issue warrants to purchase common stock (which we refer to as common stock warrants), preferred stock (which we refer to as preferred stock warrants), or debt securities (which we refer to as debt security warrants). Any of these warrants may be issued independently or together with any other securities offered by this prospectus and may be attached to or separate from those securities.

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While the terms we have summarized below will generally apply to any future warrants we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any warrants that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any warrants we offer under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms we describe below.
We may issue the warrants under a warrant agreement, which we will enter into with a warrant agent to be selected by us. Each warrant agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants.
We will incorporate by reference into the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, the form of warrant agreement, including a form of warrant certificate, that describes the terms of the series of warrants we are offering before the issuance of the related series of warrants. The following summaries of material provisions of the warrants and the warrant agreements are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the warrant agreement applicable to a particular series of warrants. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements related to the warrants that we sell under this prospectus, as well as the complete warrant agreements that contain the terms of the warrants.
We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the warrants in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered, including, when applicable, the following:
the title of the warrants;
the aggregate number of the warrants;
the price or prices at which the warrants will be issued;
the designation, number, and terms of the securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;
the designation and terms of the other securities, if any, with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security;
the date, if any, on and after which the warrants and the related underlying securities will be separately transferable;
the price at which each underlying security purchasable upon exercise of the warrants may be purchased;
the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and the date on which such right will expire;
the minimum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;
any information with respect to book-entry procedures;
the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale, or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreement and the warrants;
any other terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures, and limitations relating to the transferability, exchange, and exercise of such warrants;
the terms of any rights to redeem or call, or accelerate the expiration of, the warrants;
the date on which the right to exercise the warrants begins and the date on which that right expires;
the U.S. federal income tax consequences of holding or exercising the warrants; and
any other specific terms, preferences, rights, or limitations of, or restrictions on, the warrants.
Unless specified in an applicable prospectus supplement, common stock warrants, preferred stock warrants, or debt security warrants will be in registered form only.
A holder of warrant certificates may exchange them for new certificates of different denominations, present them for registration of transfer, and exercise them at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the

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applicable prospectus supplement. Until any common stock warrants, preferred stock warrants, or debt security warrants are exercised, holders of the warrants will not have any rights of holders of the underlying common stock, preferred stock, or debt securities, except to the extent set forth under the heading “Warrant Adjustments” below.
Exercise of Warrants
Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase for cash shares of common stock, preferred stock, or debt securities at the applicable exercise price set forth in, or determined as described in, the applicable prospectus supplement. Warrants may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.
Warrants may be exercised by delivering to the corporation trust office of the warrant agent or any other officer indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement (a) the warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed and (b) payment of the amount due upon exercise. As soon as practicable following exercise, we will forward the shares of common stock or preferred stock, or debt securities. If less than all of the warrants represented by a warrant certificate are exercised, a new warrant certificate will be issued for the remaining warrants. If we so indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may surrender securities as all or a part of the exercise price for the warrants.
Amendments and Supplements to the Warrant Agreements
We may amend or supplement a warrant agreement without the consent of the holders of the applicable warrants to cure ambiguities in the warrant agreement, to cure or correct a defective provision in the warrant agreement, or to provide for other matters under the warrant agreement that we and the warrant agent deem necessary or desirable, so long as, in each case, such amendments or supplements do not materially adversely affect the interests of the holders of the warrants.
Warrant Adjustments
Unless the applicable prospectus supplement states otherwise, the exercise price of, and the number of securities covered by, a common stock warrant, preferred stock warrant, or debt security warrant will be adjusted proportionately if we subdivide or combine our common stock or preferred stock, as applicable. In addition, unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, if we, without payment:
issue capital stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for common stock or preferred stock, or any rights to subscribe for, purchase, or otherwise acquire any of the foregoing, as a dividend or distribution to holders of our common stock or preferred stock;
pay any cash to holders of our common stock or preferred stock other than a cash dividend paid out of our current or retained earnings or other than in accordance with the terms of the preferred stock;
issue any evidence of our indebtedness or rights to subscribe for or purchase our indebtedness to holders of our common stock or preferred stock; or
issue common stock or preferred stock or additional stock or other securities or property to holders of our common stock or preferred stock by way of spinoff, split-up, reclassification, combination of shares, or similar corporate rearrangement,
then the holders of common stock warrants, preferred stock warrants, and debt security warrants, as applicable, will be entitled to receive upon exercise of the warrants, in addition to the securities otherwise receivable upon exercise of the warrants and without paying any additional consideration, the amount of stock and other securities and property such holders would have been entitled to receive had they held the common stock, preferred stock, or debt securities, as applicable, issuable under the warrants on the dates on which holders of those securities received or became entitled to receive such additional stock and other securities and property.
Except as stated above, the exercise price and number of securities covered by a common stock warrant, preferred stock warrant, and debt security warrant, and the amounts of other securities or property to be received, if any, upon exercise of those warrants, will not be adjusted or provided for if we issue those securities or any securities convertible into or exchangeable for those securities, or securities carrying the right to purchase those securities or securities convertible into or exchangeable for those securities.

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Holders of common stock warrants, preferred stock warrants, and debt security warrants may have additional rights under the following circumstances:
certain reclassifications, capital reorganizations, or changes of the common stock, or preferred stock, as applicable;
certain share exchanges, mergers, or similar transactions involving us and which result in changes of the common stock, or preferred stock, as applicable; or
certain sales or dispositions to another entity of all or substantially all of our property and assets.
If one of the above transactions occurs and holders of our common stock, preferred stock, or debt securities are entitled to receive stock, securities, or other property with respect to or in exchange for their securities, the holders of the common stock warrants, preferred stock warrants, and debt security warrants then outstanding, as applicable, will be entitled to receive upon exercise of their warrants the kind and amount of shares of stock and other securities or property that they would have received upon the applicable transaction if they had exercised their warrants immediately before the transaction.
DESCRIPTION OF UNITS
The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. Units may be offered independently or together with common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, and warrants offered by any prospectus supplement, and may be attached to or separate from those securities. While the terms we have summarized below will generally apply to any future units that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of units that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any units offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below.
We will incorporate by reference into the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, the form of unit agreement, including a form of unit certificate, if any, that describes the terms of the series of units we are offering before the issuance of the related series of units. The following summaries of material provisions of the units and the unit agreements are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the unit agreement applicable to a particular series of units. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements related to the units that we sell under this prospectus, as well as the complete unit agreements that contain the terms of the units.
General
We may issue units consisting of common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, and/or warrants in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time, or at any time before a specified date.
We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of units, including the following:
the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;
any provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described below; and
any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer, or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units.
The provisions described in this section, as well as those described in the sections entitled “Description of Common Stock,” “Description of Preferred Stock,” “Description of Debt Securities,” and “Description of Warrants,” will apply to each unit and to any common stock, preferred stock, debt security, or warrant included in each unit, respectively.
Issuance in Series
We may issue units in such amounts and in such numerous distinct series as we determine.


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Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Units
Each unit agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable unit agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any unit. A single bank or trust company may act as unit agent for more than one series of units. A unit agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable unit agreement or unit, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a unit may, without the consent of the related unit agent or the holder of any other unit, enforce by appropriate legal action its rights as holder under any security included in the unit.
Title
We, the unit agent, and any of their agents may treat the registered holder of any unit certificate as an absolute owner of the units evidenced by that certificate for any purposes and as the person entitled to exercise the rights attaching to the units so requested, despite any notice to the contrary.
LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES
We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee, depositary, or warrant agent maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.
See also the section entitled “Description of Debt Securities - Form, Transfer, and Exchange” for additional discussion of book entry and certificated form of ownership as such forms of ownership impact the rights and obligations of purchasers of debt securities to be issued under this prospectus.
Book-Entry Holders
We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers. Upon the issuance of a global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal amounts of the book-entry securities represented by the global security beneficially owned by such participants. The accounts to be credited will be designated by any dealers, underwriters, or agents participating in the distribution of the book-entry securities. Ownership of book-entry securities will be shown on, and the transfer of the ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary for the related global security (with respect to interests of participants) and on the records of participants (with respect to interests of persons holding through participants). The laws of some states may require that certain purchasers of securities take physical delivery of such securities in definitive form. These laws may impair the ability to own, transfer, or pledge beneficial interests in book-entry securities.
Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Securities issued in global form will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for securities issued in global form, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.
As a result, investors in a book-entry security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker, or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not holders, of the securities.



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Street Name Holders
We may terminate a global security or issue securities in non-global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker, or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he, she, or it maintains at that institution.
For securities held in street name, we will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers, and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.
Legal Holders
Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee and of any third parties employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name, or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.
For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that holder is required, under agreements with depositary participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Whether and how the holders contact the indirect holders is up to the holders.
Special Considerations For Indirect Holders
If you hold securities through a bank, broker, or other financial institution, either in book-entry form or in street name, you should check with your own institution to determine the following:
how it handles securities payments and notices;
whether it imposes fees or charges;
how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;
whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;
how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and
if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.
Global Securities
A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms. Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, known as DTC, will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.
A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee, or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under “Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated.” As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank, or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.

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If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued in global form only, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.
We may at any time and in our sole discretion determine not to have any of the book-entry securities of any series represented by one or more global securities and, in that event, we will issue certificated securities in exchange for the global securities of that series.
Special Considerations For Global Securities
The rights of an indirect holder relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.
If securities are issued only in the form of a global security, an investor should be aware of the following:
an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his, her, or its name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his, her, or its interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;
an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his, her, or its own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his, her, or its legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above;
an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;
an investor may not be able to pledge his, her, or its interest in a global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;
the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges, and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in a global security;
we and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in a global security, nor do we or any applicable trustee supervise the depositary in any way;
the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in a global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do so as well; and
financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in a global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices, and other matters relating to the securities.
There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.
Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated
In a few special situations described below, the global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own name, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.
Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:
if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable, or no longer qualified under the Exchange Act to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;

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if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or
if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.
The prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular types and series of securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and not we or any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.
CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF DELAWARE LAW, OUR CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION, AND BYLAWS
Anti-Takeover Provisions
Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws
Our certificate of incorporation provides for our board of directors to be divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms. Only one class of directors will be elected at each annual meeting of our stockholders, with the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective three-year terms. Because our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights, our stockholders holding a majority of the shares of common stock outstanding will be able to elect all of our directors. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that all stockholder actions must be effected at a duly called meeting of stockholders and not by a consent in writing, and that only our board of directors, chairperson of the board, chief executive officer, or president may call a special meeting of stockholders.
Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws require a 75% stockholder vote for the rescission, alteration, amendment, or repeal of the bylaws by stockholders, and provide that stockholders may only remove a director for cause with a 75% stockholder vote. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws also provide that vacancies occurring on our board of directors for any reason and newly created directorships resulting from an increase in the authorized number of directors may be filled only by vote of a majority of the remaining members of our board of directors. Our bylaws establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder approvals to be brought before an annual meeting of our stockholders, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors. The combination of the classification of our board of directors, the lack of cumulative voting or the ability of stockholders to take action by written consent, the 75% stockholder voting requirements, the limitations on removing directors without cause, the ability of the board to fill vacancies, and the advance notice provisions will make it more difficult for our existing stockholders to replace our board of directors as well as for another party to obtain control of us by replacing our board of directors. Since our board of directors has the power to retain and discharge our officers, these provisions could also make it more difficult for existing stockholders or another party to effect a change in management. In addition, the authorization of undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to change our control.
These provisions may have the effect of deterring hostile takeovers or delaying changes in our control or management. These provisions are intended to enhance the likelihood of continued stability in the composition of our board of directors and its policies and to discourage certain types of transactions that may involve an actual or threatened acquisition of us. These provisions are designed to reduce our vulnerability to an unsolicited acquisition proposal. The provisions also are intended to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. However, such provisions could have the effect of discouraging others from making tender offers for our shares and, as a consequence, they also may inhibit fluctuations in the market price of our stock that could result from actual or rumored takeover attempts. Such provisions may also have the effect of preventing changes in our management.
Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law
We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years after the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, with the following exceptions:
before such date, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;
upon completion of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction began,

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excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding (but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder) those shares owned (i) by persons who are directors and also officers and (ii) employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or
on or after such date, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.
In general, Section 203 defines business combination to include the following:
any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;
any sale, transfer, pledge, or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;
subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;
any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock or any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or
the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loss, advances, guarantees, pledges, or other financial benefits by or through the corporation.
In general, Section 203 defines an “interested stockholder” as an entity or person who, together with the person’s affiliates and associates, beneficially owns, or within three years prior to the time of determination of interested stockholder status did own, 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation.
Acceleration of equity upon change in control
Generally, under our 2005 Stock Incentive Plan and 2011 Equity Award Plan, in the event of certain mergers, a reorganization or consolidation of our company with or into another corporation, or the sale of all or substantially all of our assets or all of our capital stock wherein the successor corporation does not assume outstanding equity or issue equivalent equity, our board of directors may accelerate vesting of outstanding equity under such plans.
Choice of Forum
Our certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation Law, our certificate of incorporation, or our bylaws; or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine.
Limitations of Liability and Indemnification
Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that we will indemnify our directors and officers, and may indemnify our employees and other agents, to the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibits our certificate of incorporation from limiting the liability of our directors for the following:
any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or to our stockholders;
acts or omissions not in good faith or that involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;
unlawful payment of dividends or unlawful stock repurchases or redemptions; and
any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.
If Delaware law is amended to authorize corporate action further eliminating or limiting the personal liability of a director, then the liability of our directors will be eliminated or limited to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law, as so amended. Our certificate of incorporation does not eliminate a director’s duty of care and, in appropriate circumstances, equitable remedies, such as injunctive or other forms of non-monetary relief, remain available under Delaware law. This provision also

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does not affect a director’s responsibilities under any other laws, such as the federal securities laws or other state or federal laws. Under our bylaws, we are also empowered to purchase insurance on behalf of any person whom we are required or permitted to indemnify.
In addition to the indemnification required in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, we have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and officers. These agreements provide for the indemnification of such directors, officers, and employees for certain expenses and liabilities incurred in connection with any action, suit, proceeding, or alternative dispute resolution mechanism, or hearing, inquiry, or investigation that may lead to the foregoing, to which they are a party, or are threatened to be made a party, by reason of the fact that they are or were a director, officer, employee, agent, or fiduciary of our company, or any of our subsidiaries, by reason of any action or inaction by them while serving as an officer, director, employee, agent, or fiduciary, or by reason of the fact that they were serving at our request as a director, officer, employee, agent, or fiduciary of another entity. In the case of an action or proceeding by or in the right of our company or any of our subsidiaries, no indemnification will be provided for any claim where a court determines that the indemnified party is prohibited from receiving indemnification. We believe that the provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws described above and these indemnification agreements are necessary to attract and retain qualified persons as directors and officers. We also maintain directors’ and officers’ liability insurance.
The limitation of liability and indemnification provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws may discourage stockholders from bringing a lawsuit against directors for breach of their fiduciary duties. They may also reduce the likelihood of derivative litigation against directors and officers, even though an action, if successful, might benefit us and our stockholders. A stockholder’s investment may be harmed to the extent we pay the costs of settlement and damage awards against directors and officers pursuant to these indemnification provisions.
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers, and controlling persons pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, we have been advised that, in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act, and is, therefore, unenforceable.
There is no pending litigation or proceeding naming any of our directors or officers as to which indemnification is being sought, nor are we aware of any pending or threatened litigation that may result in claims for indemnification by any director or officer.
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We or a selling stockholder may sell the securities under this prospectus in one or more of the following ways from time to time:
through agents;
to or through underwriters;
through dealers;
directly to one or more purchasers; or
through a combination of these methods of sale.
The securities that we or a selling stockholder distribute by any of these methods may be sold, in one or more transactions, at:
a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;
market prices prevailing at the time of sale;
prices related to prevailing market prices;
negotiated prices; or
a combination of these pricing methods.
We will set forth in a prospectus supplement the terms of the offering of our securities, including:

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the name or names of any agents, underwriters, or dealers;
the purchase price of our securities being offered and the proceeds from the sale;
any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us or a selling stockholder;
any agency fees or underwriting discounts and commissions and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;
the public offering price;
any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and
any securities exchanges on which such securities may be listed.
Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, if we or a selling stockholder use underwriters for a sale of securities, the underwriters will acquire the securities for their own account. The underwriters may resell the securities in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions, at a fixed public offering price, or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. The obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable underwriting agreement. Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all the securities offered if they purchase any of the securities offered. We may change from time to time any initial public offering price and any discounts or concessions the underwriters allow or reallow or pay to dealers. We may use underwriters with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe in the prospectus supplement naming the underwriter the nature of any such relationship. We may designate agents who agree to use their reasonable efforts to solicit purchases for the period of their appointment or to sell securities on a continuing basis. We may also sell securities directly to one or more purchasers without using underwriters or agents.
Underwriters, dealers, or agents may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions, or commissions from us, a selling stockholder, or from purchasers of the securities as their agents in connection with the sale of the securities. These underwriters, dealers, or agents may be considered to be underwriters under the Securities Act. As a result, discounts, commissions, or profits on resale received by underwriters, dealers, or agents may be treated as underwriting discounts and commissions. Each prospectus supplement will identify any underwriter, dealer, or agent and describe any compensation received by them from us. Any initial public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may be changed from time to time.
In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA, the aggregate maximum discount, commission or agency fees or other items constituting underwriting compensation to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker-dealer will not exceed 8% of the proceeds from any offering pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement.
In connection with any offering, the underwriters may engage in stabilizing transactions, over-allotment transactions, syndicate covering transactions, and penalty bids in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act.
Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum.
Over-allotment involves sales by the underwriters of shares of our common stock in excess of the number of shares the underwriters are obligated to purchase, which creates a syndicate short position. The short position may be either a covered short position or a naked short position. In a covered short position, the number of shares of our common stock over-allotted by the underwriters is not greater than the number of shares that they may purchase in the over-allotment option. In a naked short position, the number of shares of our common stock involved is greater than the number of shares in the over-allotment option. The underwriters may close out any covered short position by either exercising their over-allotment option or purchasing shares of our common stock in the open market.
Syndicate covering transactions involve purchases of our common stock in the open market after the distribution has been completed in order to cover syndicate short positions. In determining the source of shares to close out the short position, the underwriters will consider, among other things, the price of shares of our common stock available for purchase in the open market as compared to the price at which they may purchase shares through the over-allotment option so that if there is a naked short position, the position can only be closed out by buying shares in the open market. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriters are concerned that there could be

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downward pressure on the price of the shares of our common stock in the open market after the pricing of any offering that could adversely affect investors who purchase in that offering.
Penalty bids permit the representatives of the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a syndicate member when the common stock originally sold by the syndicate member is purchased in a stabilizing or syndicate covering transaction to cover syndicate short positions.
These stabilizing transactions, over-allotments, syndicate covering transactions, and penalty bids may have the effect of raising or maintaining the market price of our common stock or preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of our common stock. As a result, the price of our common stock may be higher than the price that might otherwise exist in the open market. These transactions may be effected on the Nasdaq Global Market or otherwise and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.
Underwriters, dealers, and agents may be entitled under agreements entered into with us to indemnification against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribution with respect to payments they may be required to make in respect of these liabilities thereof. Underwriters, dealers, and agents and their affiliates may be customers of, may engage in transactions with, or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business for which they receive compensation.
Offers to purchase offered securities may be solicited by agents designated by us from time to time. Any agent involved in the offer or sale of the offered securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered will be named, and any commissions payable by us will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless otherwise set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, any agent will be acting on a reasonable best efforts basis for the period of its appointment. Any agent may be deemed to be an underwriter, as that term is defined in the Securities Act, of the offered securities so offered and sold.
If offered securities are sold to the public by means of an underwritten offering, either through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or directly by the managing underwriters, we will execute an underwriting agreement with an underwriter or underwriters, and the names of the specific managing underwriter or underwriters, as well as any other underwriters, will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. In addition, the terms of the transaction, including commissions, discounts and any other compensation of the underwriters and dealers, if any, will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, which prospectus supplement will be used by the underwriters to make resales of the offered securities. If underwriters are utilized in the sale of the offered securities, the offered securities will be acquired by the underwriters for their own account and may be resold from time to time in one or more transactions, including:
negotiated transactions;
at fixed public offering prices; and
at varying prices determined by the underwriters at the time of sale.
In addition, unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the underwriting agreement will provide that the obligations of the underwriters are subject to specified conditions precedent and that the underwriters with respect to a sale of offered securities will be obligated to purchase all of the offered securities if any are purchased.
We may grant to the underwriters options to purchase additional offered securities to cover over-allotments, if any, at the public offering price with additional underwriting discounts or commissions, as may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we grant any over-allotment option, the terms of the over-allotment option will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
If a dealer is utilized in the sales of offered securities, we will sell the offered securities to the dealer as principal. The dealer may then resell the offered securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale. Any dealer may be deemed to be an underwriter of the offered securities so offered and sold. The name of the dealer and the terms of the transaction will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
We may directly solicit offers to purchase offered securities and sell offered securities directly to institutional investors or others with respect to any resale of the offered securities. The terms of any of these sales will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
In order to comply with the securities laws of some states, if applicable, the shares of common stock offered by this prospectus must be sold in such jurisdictions only through registered or licensed brokers or dealers. In addition, in some states

26




the shares of common stock may not be sold unless they have been registered or qualified for sale in the applicable state or an exemption from the registration or qualification requirement is available and is complied with.
To the extent required, this prospectus may be amended or supplemented from time to time to describe a specific plan of distribution.
LEGAL MATTERS
The validity of the securities offered hereby is being passed upon for us by Foley & Lardner LLP, Boston, Massachusetts.
EXPERTS
The consolidated financial statements incorporated in this Prospectus by reference from the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, and the effectiveness of Carbonite Inc.'s internal control over financial reporting have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their reports, which are incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements have been so incorporated in reliance upon the reports of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.
The consolidated financial statements of Carbonite, Inc. as of December 31, 2016, and for each of the two years in the period then ended appearing in Carbonite, Inc.’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2017, have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in its report thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We file annual, quarterly, and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at www.carbonite.com. Our website is not a part of this prospectus. You may also read and copy any document we file at the SEC’s Public Reference Room, 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the Public Reference Room.
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC. This prospectus omits some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information on us and our consolidated subsidiaries and the securities that we are offering. Statements in this prospectus concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements.
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below (File No. 001-35264) and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed) between the date of the initial registration statement and the effectiveness of the registration statement and following the effectiveness of the registration statement until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed:
our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017 filed with the SEC on March 12, 2018, including the information specifically incorporated by reference into the Annual Report on Form 10-K from our definitive proxy statement for the 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders;
our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2018 filed with the SEC on May 10, 2018;
our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on March 19, 2018 and May 8, 2018; and

27




the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on August 1, 2011, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating that description.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, information furnished under Items 2.02 and 7.01 of any Current Report on Form 8-K, including the related exhibits under Item 9.01, is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
You may request a copy of any or all of these documents, which will be provided to you at no cost, by writing or telephoning us using the following contact information:
Carbonite, Inc.
Two Avenue de Lafayette
Boston, Massachusetts 02111
Attn: Danielle Sheer, General Counsel
Telephone: (617) 587-1100
You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus, including information incorporated by reference as described above, any accompanying prospectus supplement or any “free writing prospectus” that we may authorize to be delivered to you. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of those documents or that any document incorporated by reference is accurate as of any date other than its filing date. You should not consider this prospectus to be an offer or solicitation relating to the securities in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or solicitation relating to the securities is not authorized. Furthermore, you should not consider this prospectus to be an offer or solicitation relating to the securities if the person making the offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so, or if it is unlawful for you to receive such an offer or solicitation.





28




PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS
Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.
The following table sets forth the various expenses to be incurred in connection with the registration of the securities being registered hereby, all of which will be borne by the Registrant. All amounts shown are estimates.
SEC registration fee
 
*
Transfer agent’s, trustee’s and depository’s fees and expenses

 
**
Printing expenses
 
**
Legal fees of Registrant’s counsel
 
**
Accounting fees and expenses
 
**
Miscellaneous
 
**
Total expenses
 
**
*
Deferred in accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the Securities Act of 1933.
**
An estimate of the various expenses in connection with the sale and distribution of the securities being offered will be included in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.
Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law authorizes a court to award, or a corporation’s board of directors to grant, indemnity to directors and officers in terms sufficiently broad to permit such indemnification under certain circumstances for liabilities, including reimbursement for expenses incurred, arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act.
Our certificate of incorporation provides for indemnification of our directors, officers, employees, and other agents to the maximum extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, and our bylaws provide for indemnification of our directors, officers, employees, and other agents to the maximum extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law.
In addition, we have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors, officers, and some employees containing provisions which are in some respects broader than the specific indemnification provisions contained in the Delaware General Corporation Law. The indemnification agreements require us, among other things, to indemnify our directors against certain liabilities that may arise by reason of their status or service as directors and to advance their expenses incurred as a result of any proceeding against them as to which they could be indemnified.

29




Item 16. Exhibits.
EXHIBIT INDEX
 
 
 
Exhibit
Number
  
Description of Exhibit
  1.1*
  
Form of Underwriting Agreement.
  4.1(1)
  
  4.2(2)
 
  4.3(3)
  
  4.4(4)
  
  4.6†
 
  4.7*
 
Form of Debt Security.
  4.8*
 
Form of Warrant Agreement and Certificate.
  4.9*
 
Form of Unit Agreement and Certificate.
  5.1†
  
12.1*
 
Statement of Computation of Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges and Preferred Stock Dividends.
23.1†
  
23.2†
  
23.3†
  
24.1†
  
25.1**
 
Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 of the Trustee under the Indenture.
 
*
 
To be filed by amendment to this registration statement or by a report filed under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and incorporated herein by reference.
 
**
 
To be filed in accordance with the requirements of Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and Rule 5b-3 thereunder.
 
(1)
 
Filed as Exhibit 3.1 to Registrant’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 10, 2011, and incorporated herein by reference.
 
(2)
 
Filed as Exhibit 3.1 to Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K/A filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on January 13, 2016, and incorporated herein by reference.
 
(3)
 
Filed as Exhibit 3.2 to Amendment No. 2 to Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 13, 2011, and incorporated herein by reference.
 
(4)
 
Filed as Exhibit 4.1 to Amendment No. 3 to Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 25, 2011, and incorporated herein by reference.
 
 
Filed herewith.

Item 17. Undertakings
(a) The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes:
(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this Registration Statement:
(i) To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;
(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the Registration Statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the Registration Statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20 percent change in

30




the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective Registration Statement.
(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the Registration Statement or any material change to such information in the Registration Statement;
Provided, however, That paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the Registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the Registration Statement.
(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new Registration Statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.
(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:
A. Each prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the Registration Statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the Registration Statement; and
B. Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a Registration Statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the Registration Statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the Registration Statement relating to the securities in the Registration Statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a Registration Statement or prospectus that is part of the Registration Statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or prospectus that is part of the Registration Statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the Registration Statement or prospectus that was part of the Registration Statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.
(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the Registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities:
The undersigned Registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned Registrant pursuant to this Registration Statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned Registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:
(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned Registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;
(ii) Any “free writing prospectus” relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned Registrant;
(iii) The portion of any other “free writing prospectus” relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned Registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant; and
(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned Registrant to the purchaser.
(b) The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the Registrant’s annual report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement shall be deemed to be a new Registration Statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

31




(h) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers, and controlling persons of the Registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the Registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the Registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the Registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the Registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
(j) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under section 305(b)2 of the Trust Indenture Act.

32




SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Boston, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, on June 1, 2018.
                        
 
CARBONITE, INC.
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Mohamad Ali
 
 
Mohamad Ali
 
 
President and Chief Executive Officer


33




SIGNATURES AND POWER OF ATTORNEY
We, the undersigned officers and directors Carbonite, Inc., hereby severally constitute and appoint Mohamad Ali, Anthony Folger, and Danielle Sheer and each of them singly, our true and lawful attorneys with full power to any of them, and to each of them singly, to sign for us and in our names in the capacities indicated below the Registration Statement on Form S-3 filed herewith and any and all pre-effective and post-effective amendments to said Registration Statement and any subsequent Registration Statement filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and to file the same with all exhibits thereto, and the other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and generally to do all such things in our name and behalf in our capacities as officers and directors to enable Carbonite, Inc. to comply with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and all requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission, hereby ratifying and confirming our signatures as they may be signed by our said attorneys, or any of them, to said Registration Statement and any and all amendments thereto.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

Signature
Title
Date
/s/ Mohamad Ali
Chief Executive Officer and Director
(Principal Executive Officer)
 
Mohamad Ali
June 1, 2018
 
 
 
/s/ Anthony Folger
Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial Officer)
 
Anthony Folger
June 1, 2018
 
 
 
/s/ Cassandra Hudson
Chief Accounting Officer
(Principal Accounting Officer)

 
Cassandra Hudson
June 1, 2018
 
 
 
/s/ Stephen Munford
 
 
Stephen Munford
Chairman of the Board
June 1, 2018
 
 
 
/s/ Marina Levinson
 
 
Marina Levinson
Director
June 1, 2018
 
 
 
/s/ Charles Kane
 
 
Charles Kane
Director
June 1, 2018
 
 
 
/s/ Todd Krasnow
 
 
Todd Krasnow
Director
June 1, 2018
 
 
 
/s/ Peter Gyenes
 
 
Peter Gyenes
Director
June 1, 2018
 
 
 
/s/ Scott Daniels
 
 
Scott Daniels
Director
June 1, 2018
 
 
 
/s/ David Friend
 
 
David Friend
Director
June 1, 2018


34

Exhibit


Exhibit 4.6
CARBONITE, INC.
and
,
as Trustee
Guaranteed to the extent set forth therein by the Guarantors named herein.
INDENTURE
dated as of
[●]





Article 1 DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION

1

 
 
 
 
 
Section 1.01
Certain Definitions
1

 
Section 1.02
Other Definitions
4

 
Section 1.03
Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act
4

 
Section 1.04
Rules of Construction
5

 
 
 
 
Article 2 THE SECURITIES
5

 
 
 
 
 
Section 2.01
Unlimited In Amount, Issuable In Series, Form, and Dating
5

 
Section 2.02
Execution and Authentication
9

 
Section 2.03
Registrar and Paying Agent
9

 
Section 2.04
Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust
10

 
Section 2.05
Securityholder Lists
10

 
Section 2.06
Transfer and Exchange
10

 
Section 2.07
Replacement Securities
11

 
Section 2.08
Outstanding Securities
11

 
Section 2.09
Temporary Securities
12

 
Section 2.10
Cancellation
12

 
Section 2.11
Defaulted Interest
12

 
Section 2.12
Special Record Dates
12

 
Section 2.13
Global Securities
13

 
Section 2.14
CUSIP Numbers
14

 
 
 
 
Article 3 REDEMPTION

14

 
 
 
 
 
Section 3.01
Notices to Trustee
14

 
Section 3.02
Selection of Securities to Be Redeemed
15

 
Section 3.03
Notice of Redemption
15

 
Section 3.04
Effect of Notice of Redemption
16

 
Section 3.05
Deposit of Redemption Price
16

 
Section 3.06
Securities Redeemed or Purchased in Part
17

 
 
 
 
Article 4 COVENANTS
17

 
 
 
 
 
Section 4.01
Payment of Securities
17

 
Section 4.02
Maintenance of Office or Agency
17

 
Section 4.03
Reports
18

 
Section 4.04
Compliance Certificate
18

 
Section 4.05
Taxes
19

 
Section 4.06
Stay, Extension and Usury Laws
19

 
Section 4.07
Calculation of Original Issue Discount
19

 
 
 
 

i




Article 5 SUCCESSORS
19

 
 
 
 
 
Section 5.01
When Company May Merge, Etc
19

 
Section 5.02
Successor Person Substituted
20

 
 
 
 
Article 6 DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES
20

 
 
 
 
 
Section 6.01
Events of Default
20

 
Section 6.02
Acceleration
22

 
Section 6.03
Other Remedies
22

 
Section 6.04
Waiver of Past Defaults
22

 
Section 6.05
Control by Majority
23

 
Section 6.06
Limitation on Suits
23

 
Section 6.07
Rights of Holders to Receive Payment
23

 
Section 6.08
Collection Suit by Trustee
23

 
Section 6.09
Trustee May File Proofs of Claim
24

 
Section 6.10
Priorities
24

 
Section 6.11
Undertaking for Costs
25

 
 
 
 
Article 7 TRUSTEE
25

 
 
 
 
 
Section 7.01
Duties of Trustee
25

 
Section 7.02
Rights of Trustee
26

 
Section 7.03
Individual Rights of Trustee
27

 
Section 7.04
Trustee’s Disclaimer
27

 
Section 7.05
Notice of Defaults
27

 
Section 7.06
Reports by Trustee to Holders
27

 
Section 7.07
Compensation and Indemnity
28

 
Section 7.08
Replacement of Trustee
28

 
Section 7.09
Successor Trustee by Merger, etc.
30

 
Section 7.10
Eligibility; Disqualification
30

 
Section 7.11
Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company
30

 
 
 
 
Article 8 SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE
30

 
 
 
 
 
Section 8.01
Satisfaction and Discharge
30

 
Section 8.02
Option to Effect Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance
31

 
Section 8.03
Legal Defeasance and Discharge
32

 
Section 8.04
Covenant Defeasance
32

 
Section 8.05
Conditions to Legal or Covenant Defeasance
33

 
Section 8.06
Deposited Money and Government Securities to be Held in Trust; Other Miscellaneous Provisions
34

 
Section 8.07
Repayment to Company
34


ii




 
Section 8.08
Reinstatement
35

Article 9 SUPPLEMENTS, AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS
35

 
 
 
 
 
Section 9.01
Without Consent of Holders
35

 
Section 9.02
With Consent of Holders
36

 
Section 9.03
Revocation and Effect of Consents
38

 
Section 9.04
Notation on or Exchange of Securities
38

 
Section 9.05
Trustee to Sign Amendments, etc.
38

 
 
 
 
Article 10 GUARANTEES
38

 
 
 
 
 
Section 10.01
Guarantee
39

 
 
 
 
Article 11 MISCELLANEOUS
39

 
 
 
 
 
Section 11.01
Indenture Subject to Trust Indenture Act
39

 
Section 11.02
Notices
39

 
Section 11.03
Communication By Holders With Other Holders
40

 
Section 11.04
Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent
40

 
Section 11.05
Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion
40

 
Section 11.06
Rules by Trustee and Agents
41

 
Section 11.07
Legal Holidays
41

 
Section 11.08
No Recourse Against Others
41

 
Section 11.09
Counterparts
41

 
Section 11.10
Governing Law
41

 
Section 11.11
Submission to Jurisdiction; Service of Process; Waiver of Jury Trial
42

 
Section 11.12
Severability
42

 
Section 11.13
Effect of Headings, Table of Contents, etc.
42

 
Section 11.14
Successors and Assigns
42

 
Section 11.15
No Interpretation of Other Agreements
42

 
 
 
 

iii




CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE*
Trust Indenture
Act Section
 
Indenture Section
310(a)(1)
 
7.10
   (a)(2)
 
7.10
   (a)(3)
 
N.A.
   (a)(4)
 
N.A.
   (a)(5)
 
7.10
   (b)
 
7.03;7.08;7.10
   (c)
 
N.A.
311(a)
 
7.11
   (b)
 
7.11
   (c)
 
N.A.
312(a)
 
2.05
   (b)
 
11.03
   (c)
 
11.03
313(a)
 
7.06
   (b)(1)
 
N.A.
   (b)(2)
 
7.06
   (c)
 
7.06;11.02
   (d)
 
7.06
314(a)
 
4.03;10.02;11.05
   (b)
 
N.A.
   (c)(1)
 
11.04
   (c)(2)
 
11.04
   (c)(3)
 
N.A.

iv




   (d)
 
N.A.
   (e)
 
11.05
   (f)
 
N.A.
315(a)
 
7.01(b)(ii);7.02
   (b)
 
7.02;7.05;10.02
   (c)
 
7.01(a);7.02
   (d)
 
7.01(d);7.02
   (e)
 
6.11
316(a)(last sentence)
 
2.13(f)
   (a)(1)(A)
 
6.05
   (a)(1)(B)
 
6.04
   (a)(2)
 
N.A.
   (b)
 
6.07
   (c)
 
2.12;9.03
317(a)(1)
 
6.08
   (a)(2)
 
6.09
   (b)
 
2.04
318(a)
 
11.01
   (b)
 
N.A.
   (c)
 
11.01
N.A. means not applicable
* This Cross-Reference Table is not part of the Indenture.

v




INDENTURE dated as [●] of by and among CARBONITE, INC., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), the guarantors listed on Schedule 1 hereto (the “Guarantors”) and         , as trustee (the “Trustee”).
The Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance from time to time of its debentures, notes, or other evidences of indebtedness to be issued in one or more series, as herein provided, up to such principal amount as may from time to time be authorized in or pursuant to one or more resolutions of the Company’s Board of Directors or by supplemental indenture.
Each party agrees as follows for the benefit of the other parties and for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders of each series of the Securities:
ARTICLE 1

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATIONBY REFERENCE

Section 1.01    Certain Definitions.
“Affiliate” of any specified Person means any other Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified Person. For purposes of this definition, “control,” as used with respect to any Person, shall mean the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such Person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by agreement or otherwise; provided, however, that beneficial ownership of 10% or more of the Voting Securities of a Person shall be deemed to be a controlling interest in such Person. For purposes of this definition, the terms “controlling,” “controlled by,” and “under common control with” have correlative meanings.
“Agent” means any Registrar, Paying Agent, authenticating agent, or co-Registrar.
“Board of Directors” means, with respect to any Person, the board of directors of such Person (or, if such Person is a limited liability company, the board of managers of such Person) or similar governing body or any authorized committee thereof.
“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors or pursuant to authorization by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification (and delivered to the Trustee, if appropriate).
“Business Day” means any day other than a Legal Holiday.
“Closing Date” means the date on which the Securities of a particular series were originally issued under this Indenture.
“Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

1




“Company” means the party named as such above until a successor replaces it pursuant to this Indenture and thereafter means the successor.
“Company Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by two Officers, one of whom must be the Company’s principal executive officer, principal financial officer, or principal accounting officer and delivered to the Trustee.
“Corporate Trust Office” shall mean the corporate trust office of the Trustee.
“Default” means any event that is, or with the passage of time or the giving of notice or both would be, an Event of Default.
“Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as Depositary for such series by the Company, which Depositary shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act; and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Securities of such series.
“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
“GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and statements and pronouncements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or in such other statements by such other entity as have been approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession, which are applicable to the circumstances as of the Closing Date.
“Global Security” shall mean a Security issued to evidence all or a part of any series of Securities that is executed by the Company and authenticated and delivered by the Trustee to a Depositary or pursuant to such Depositary’s instructions, all in accordance with this Indenture and pursuant to Section 2.01, which shall be registered as to principal and interest in the name of such Depositary or its nominee.
“Guarantee” means a guarantee by any Guarantor of an obligation under this Indenture.
“Holder” or “Securityholder” means a Person in whose name a Security is registered in the register of Securities kept by the Registrar.
“Indenture” means this Indenture, as amended or supplemented from time to time.
“Interest” when used with respect to an Original Issue Discount Security that by its terms bears interest only after Maturity, means interest payable after Maturity.
“Maturity” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security or an installment of principal becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise.

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“Officer” means, with respect to any Person, the Chairman of the Board, a Chief Executive Officer, the President, the Chief Operating Officer, the Chief Financial Officer, any Vice-President, the Treasurer, the Controller, the Secretary, any Assistant Treasurer, or any Assistant Secretary of such Person.
“Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by two or more Officers, one of whom must be the principal executive officer, principal financial officer, or principal accounting officer of the Company that meets the requirements of Section 11.05 hereof.
“Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion from legal counsel who is reasonably acceptable to the Trustee that meets the requirements of Section 11.05 hereof. The counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company or the Trustee.
“Original Issue Discount Security” means any Security which provides that an amount less than its principal amount is due and payable upon acceleration after an Event of Default.
“Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, limited liability company, joint stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government, or other entity.
“principal” of a Security means the principal amount due on the Stated Maturity of the Security plus the premium, if any, on the Security.
“Securities” means the debentures, notes, or other evidences of indebtedness to be issued in one or more series authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.
“Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended from time to time.
“Stated Maturity” when used with respect to any Security or any installment of interest thereon, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of interest is due and payable.
“Subsidiary” means, with respect to any specified Person: (i) any corporation, association, or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of capital stock entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers, or trustees of the corporation, association, or other business entity is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by that Person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of that Person (or a combination thereof); and (ii) any partnership (a) the sole general partner or the managing general partner of which is such Person or a Subsidiary of such Person, or (b) the only general partners of which are that Person or one or more Subsidiaries of that Person (or any combination thereof).
“TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S.C. §§77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date on which this Indenture is qualified under the TIA provided, however, that in the event the TIA is amended after such date, “TIA” means, to the extent required by such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act, as amended.

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“Trust Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee, means any officer with direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of his knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.
“Trustee” means the party named as such above until a successor becomes such pursuant to this Indenture and thereafter means or includes each party who is then a trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such party, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any series means the Trustee with respect to Securities of that series. If Trustees with respect to different series of Securities are trustees under this Indenture, nothing herein shall constitute the Trustees co-trustees of the same trust, and each Trustee shall be the trustee of a trust separate and apart from any trust administered by any other Trustee with respect to a different series of Securities.
“U.S. Government Obligations” means securities that are (i) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that is not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depository receipt.
Section 1.02    Other Definitions.
Term
Defined in Section
 
 
“Bankruptcy Law”
6.01
“Custodian”
6.01
“Event of Default”
6.01
“foreign government obligations”
8.01
“Legal Holiday”
11.07
“Paying Agent”
2.03
“Place of Payment”
2.01
“redemption price”
3.03
“Registrar”
2.03

Section 1.03    Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act.

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Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:
“indenture securities” means the Securities.
“indenture securityholder” means a Securityholder.
“indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.
“indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.
“obligor” on the Securities means the Company and any Guarantor and any successor obligor on the Securities.
All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined by TIA reference to another statute or defined by Commission rule under the TIA have the meanings so assigned to them.
Section 1.04    Rules of Construction.
Unless the context otherwise requires:
(a)    a term has the meaning assigned to it;
(b)    an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with GAAP;
(c)    “or” is not exclusive;
(d)    words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular;
(e)    provisions apply to successive events and transactions; and
(f)    references to sections of or rules under the Securities Act shall be deemed to include substitute, replacement of successor sections or rules adopted by the SEC from time to time.
ARTICLE 2
THE SECURITIES
 
Section 2.01    Unlimited In Amount, Issuable In Series, Form, and Dating.
The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series. There shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution or an Officers’ Certificate pursuant to authority

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granted under a Board Resolution or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, prior to the issuance of Securities of any series:
(a)    the title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of the series from all other Securities);
(b)    the series designation and whether they are senior Securities, senior subordinated Securities, or subordinated Securities;
(c)    any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of Securities of the series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the series pursuant to this Article 2);
(d)    the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount) at which the Securities will be issued and, if other than the principal amount of the Securities, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities payable upon the maturity of the debt securities;
(e)    the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable;
(f)    the rate or rates that may be fixed or variable at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest, if any, or the manner in which such rate or rates shall be determined, the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, the interest payment dates on which such interest shall be payable, and the record dates for the determination of Holders to whom interest is payable;
(g)    the place or places where the principal of, premium, if any, and any interest, if any, on Securities of the series shall be payable or the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail, or by other means, if other than as provided herein, and where the Securities can be surrendered for transfer, exchange, or conversion;
(h)    the price or prices at which (if any), the period or periods within which (if any), and the terms and conditions upon which (if other than as provided herein) Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option, or as an obligation, of the Company;
(i)    the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem, purchase, or repay Securities of the series, in whole or in part, pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the price or prices at which and the period and periods within which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series shall be redeemed, purchased, or repaid pursuant to such obligation;
(j)    the dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which, the Securities of the series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;

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(k)    if convertible, the initial conversion price, the conversion period, and any other terms governing such conversion;
(l)    if other than denominations of $1,000 and any multiple thereof, the denominations in which Securities of the series shall be issuable;
(m)    if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02 hereof;
(n)    any addition to, change in, or deletion from the covenants set forth in Articles 4 or 5 that applies to Securities of the series;
(o)    any addition to, changes in, or deletion from the Events of Default with respect to the Securities of a particular series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.02 hereof;
(p)    the Trustee for the series of Securities;
(q)    the forms of the Securities of the series in bearer or fully registered form (and, if in fully registered form, whether the Securities will be issuable, in whole or in part, as Global Securities);
(r)    whether the Securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a Global Security or Securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such Global Security or Securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual Securities, and the Depositary for such Global Security and Securities;
(s)    the provisions, if any, relating to any security provided for the Securities of the series;
(t)    any other terms of the series (which terms may modify, supplement, or delete any provision of this Indenture with respect to such series; provided, however, that no such term may modify or delete any provision hereof if imposed by the TIA; and provided, further, that any modification or deletion of the rights, duties, or immunities of the Trustee hereunder shall have been consented to in writing by the Trustee);
(u)    the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Securities of the series shall be exchanged for or converted into other securities or property of the Company or securities of another person;
(v)    any depositories, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents, or other agents with respect to Securities of such series if other than those appointed herein;
(w)    whether the Securities rank as senior subordinated Securities or subordinated Securities or any combination thereof and the terms of any such subordination;

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(x)    the form and terms of any guarantee of any Securities of the series;
(y)    the terms and conditions of any defeasance provisions;
(z)    the currency of denomination of the Securities;
(aa)    the designation of the currency, currencies, or currency units in which payment of principal of, premium, and interest on the Securities will be made;
(bb)    whether the Securities will be listed on any securities exchange or quotation system;
(cc)    if payments of principal of, premium, or interest on the Securities will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the Securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to these payments will be determined;
(dd)    the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, premium, or interest on the Securities will be determined, if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies other than that in which the Securities are denominated or designated to be payable or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index, or financial index;
(ee)    whether and under what circumstances, if any, additional amounts on any Securities will be paid in respect of any tax, assessment, or governmental charge and, if so, whether the Company will have the option to redeem the Securities instead of making the payment;
(ff)    the terms and conditions pertaining to transfer, sale, or other assignment of the Securities; and
(gg)    if the Securities are to be issued upon the exercise of debt warrants, the time, manner, and place for the Securities to be authenticated and delivered.
All Securities of any series shall be substantially identical except as to denomination and except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to such Board Resolution or Officers’ Certificate or in any such indenture supplemental hereto.
The principal of and any interest on the Securities shall be payable at the office or agency of the Company designated in the form of Security for the series (each such place herein called the “Place of Payment”); provided, however, that payment of interest may be made at the option of the Company by check mailed to the address of the Person entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the register of Securities referred to in Section 2.03 hereof.
Each Security shall be in one of the forms approved from time to time by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or Officers’ Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the delivery of a Security to the Trustee for authentication in any form approved by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or Officers’ Certificate, the Company shall deliver to the Trustee the Board Resolution or Officers’ Certificate by or pursuant to which such form of Security has

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been approved, which Board Resolution or Officers’ Certificate shall have attached thereto a true and correct copy of the form of Security that has been approved by or pursuant thereto.
The Securities may have notations, legends, or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule, or usage. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.
Section 2.02    Execution and Authentication.
One or more Officers shall sign the Securities for the Company by manual or facsimile signature.
If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.
A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture.
The Trustee shall authenticate Securities for original issue upon receipt of a Company Order.
The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company.
Section 2.03    Registrar and Paying Agent.
The Company shall maintain an office or agency where Securities of a particular series may be presented for registration of transfer or for exchange (the “Registrar”) and an office or agency where Securities of that series may be presented for payment (a “Paying Agent”). The Registrar for a particular series of Securities shall keep a register of the Securities of that series and of their registration of transfer and exchange. The Company may appoint one or more co-Registrars and one or more additional paying agents for each series of Securities. The term “Paying Agent” includes any additional paying agent. The Company may change any Paying Agent, Registrar, or co-Registrar without prior notice to any Securityholder. The Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the name and address of any Agent not a party to this Indenture.
If the Company fails to maintain a Registrar or Paying Agent for any series of Securities, the Trustee shall act as such. The Company or any of its Affiliates may act as Paying Agent, Registrar, or co-Registrar.
The Company hereby appoints the Trustee the initial Registrar and Paying Agent for each series of Securities unless another Registrar or Paying Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that series are first issued.

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Section 2.04    Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust.
Whenever the Company has one or more Paying Agents it will, prior to each due date of the principal of or interest on, any Securities, deposit with a Paying Agent a sum sufficient to pay the principal or interest so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such principal or interest, and (unless such Paying Agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of its action or failure so to act.
The Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that such Paying Agent will hold in trust for the benefit of the Securityholders of the particular series for which it is acting, or the Trustee, all money held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal or interest on the Securities of such series, and that such Paying Agent will notify the Trustee of any Default by the Company or any other obligor of the series of Securities in making any such payment and at any time during the continuance of any such Default, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such Paying Agent. If the Company or an Affiliate acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate and hold in a separate trust fund for the benefit of the Securityholders of the particular series for which it is acting all money held by it as Paying Agent. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. Upon so doing, the Paying Agent (if other than the Company or an Affiliate of the Company) shall have no further liability for such money. Upon any bankruptcy or reorganization proceedings relating to the Company, the Trustee shall serve as Paying Agent for the Securities.
Section 2.05    Securityholder Lists.
The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders, separately by series, and shall otherwise comply with TIA Section 312(a). If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee at least seven Business Days before each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, a list in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require of the names and addresses of Securityholders, separately by series, relating to such interest payment date or request, as the case may be.
Section 2.06    Transfer and Exchange.
Where Securities of a series are presented to the Registrar or a co-Registrar with a request to register a transfer or to exchange them for an equal principal amount of Securities of the same series of other authorized denominations, the Registrar shall register the transfer or make the exchange if its requirements for such transactions are met. To permit registrations of transfers and exchanges, the Company shall issue and the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request.
No service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or exchange, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable in connection therewith (other than any such transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable upon exchanges pursuant to Sections 2.09, 2.13, 3.06 or 9.04).

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The Company need not issue, and the Registrar or co-Registrar need not register the transfer or exchange of, (i) any Security of a particular series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of any selection of Securities of that series for redemption under Section 3.02 and ending at the close of business on the day of selection, or (ii) any Security so selected for redemption in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any Security of that series being redeemed in part.
Section 2.07    Replacement Securities.
If a mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee or if the Holder of a Security claims that the Security has been lost, destroyed, or wrongfully taken, the Company shall issue and the Trustee shall authenticate a replacement Security of same series if the Company’s and the Trustee’s requirements are met. The Trustee or the Company may require an indemnity bond to be furnished which is sufficient in the judgment of both to protect the Company, the Trustee, and any Agent from any loss which any of them may suffer if a Security is replaced. The Company or the Trustee may charge such Holder for its expenses in replacing a Security.
Every replacement Security is an obligation of the Company and shall be entitled to all the benefit of the Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series.
Section 2.08    Outstanding Securities.
The Securities of any series outstanding at any time are all the Securities of that series authenticated by the Trustee except for those canceled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation, and those described in this Section as not outstanding.
If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.07, it ceases to be outstanding unless the Trustee receives proof satisfactory to it that the replaced Security is held by a protected purchaser.
If Securities are considered paid under Section 4.01, they cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue.
Except as set forth in Section 2.09 hereof, a Security does not cease to be outstanding because the Company or an Affiliate holds the Security.
For each series of Original Issue Discount Securities, the principal amount of such Securities that shall be deemed to be outstanding and used to determine whether the necessary Holders have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, or waiver shall be the principal amount of such Securities that could be declared to be due and payable upon acceleration upon an Event of Default as of the date of such determination. When requested by the Trustee, the Company shall advise the Trustee of such amount, showing its computations in reasonable detail.


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Section 2.09    Temporary Securities.
Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and the Trustee shall authenticate temporary Securities upon a Company Order. Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of definitive Securities but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and the Trustee shall authenticate definitive Securities in exchange for temporary Securities.
Holders of temporary securities shall be entitled to all of the benefits of this Indenture.
Section 2.10    Cancellation.
The Company at any time may deliver Securities to the Trustee for cancellation. The Registrar and Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for registration of transfer, exchange, or payment. The Trustee shall cancel all Securities surrendered for registration of transfer, exchange, payment, replacement, or cancellation and shall return such canceled Securities to the Company at the Company’s written request. The Company may not issue new Securities to replace Securities that it has paid or that have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.
Section 2.11    Defaulted Interest.
If the Company fails to make a payment of interest on any series of Securities, the Company shall pay such defaulted interest plus (to the extent lawful) any interest payable on the defaulted interest, in any lawful manner. It may elect to pay such defaulted interest, plus any such interest payable on it, to the Persons who are Holders of such Securities on which the interest is due on a subsequent special record date. The Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of defaulted interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment. The Company shall fix or cause to be fixed any such record date and payment date for such payment, provided that no such special record date shall be less than 10 days prior to the related payment date for such defaulted interest. At least 15 days before any such record date, the Company shall mail to Securityholders affected thereby a notice that states the record date, payment date, and amount of such interest to be paid.
Section 2.12    Special Record Dates.
(a)    The Company may, but shall not be obligated to, set a record date for the purpose of determining the identity of Holders entitled to consent to any supplement, amendment or waiver permitted by this Indenture. If a record date is fixed, the Holders of Securities of that series outstanding on such record date, and no other Holders, shall be entitled to consent to such supplement, amendment, or waiver or revoke any consent previously given, whether or not such Holders remain Holders after such record date. No consent shall be valid or effective for more than 90 days after such record date unless consents from Holders of the principal amount of Securities of that series required hereunder for such amendment or waiver to be effective shall have also been given and not revoked within such 90-day period.

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(b)    The Company may, but shall not be obligated to, fix any day as a record date for the purpose of determining the Holders of any series of Securities entitled to join in the giving or making of any notice of Default, any declaration of acceleration, any request to institute proceedings, or any other similar direction. If a record date is fixed, the Holders of Securities of that series outstanding on such record date, and no other Holders, shall be entitled to join in such notice, declaration, request, or direction, whether or not such Holders remain Holders after such record date; provided, however, that no such action shall be effective hereunder unless taken on or prior to the date 90 days after such record date.
Section 2.13    Global Securities.
(a)    Terms of Securities. A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto, or an Officers’ Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities.
(b)    Transfer and Exchange. Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.06 of this Indenture and in addition thereto, any Global Security shall be exchangeable pursuant to Section 2.06 of this Indenture for securities registered in the names of Holders other than the Depositary for such Security or its nominee only if (i) such Depositary notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such Global Security or if at any time such Depositary ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and, in either case, the Company fails to appoint a successor Depositary within 90 days of such event or (ii) the Company executes and delivers to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable. Any Global Security that is exchangeable pursuant to the preceding sentence shall be exchangeable for Securities registered in such names as the Depositary shall direct in writing in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security with like tenor and terms.
Except as provided in this paragraph (b) of this Section, a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depositary, by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary, or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such a successor Depositary.
(c)    Legend. Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:
“Unless this certificate is presented by an authorized representative of The Depository Trust Company, a New York corporation (“DTC”), New York, New York, to the issuer or its agent for registration of transfer, exchange, or payment and any certificate issued is registered in the name of Cede & Co. or such other name as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC (and any payment is made to Cede & Co. or such other entity as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC), ANY TRANSFER, PLEDGE OR OTHER USE HEREOF

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FOR VALUE OR OTHERWISE BY OR TO ANY PERSON IS WRONGFUL inasmuch as the registered owner hereof, Cede & Co. has an interest herein.
Transfer of this Global Security shall be limited to transfers in whole, but not in part, to nominees of DTC or to a successor thereof or such successor’s nominee and limited to transfers made in accordance with the restrictions set forth in the Indenture referred to herein.”
(d)    Acts of Holders. The Depositary, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver, or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under this Indenture.
(e)    Payments. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 hereof, payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on any Global Security shall be made to the Person specified therein.
(f)    Consents, Declaration and Directions. Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this Section, the Company, the Trustee, and any Agent shall treat a Person as the Holder of such principal amount of outstanding Securities of such series represented by a Global Security as shall be specified in a written statement of the Depositary with respect to such Global Security, for purposes of obtaining any consents, declarations, or directions required to be given by the Holders pursuant to this Indenture.
Section 2.14    CUSIP Numbers.
The Company in issuing any series of Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on such Securities or as contained in any notice and that reliance may be placed only on the other identification numbers printed on such Securities, and any such action relating to such notice shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers in such notice. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee of any change in the “CUSIP” numbers.
ARTICLE 3
REDEMPTION
Section 3.01    Notices to Trustee.
If the Company elects to redeem Securities of any series pursuant to any optional redemption provisions thereof, it shall furnish to the Trustee at least 30 days, but not more than 60 days before a redemption date, an Officer’s Certificate which shall specify (i) the provisions of such Security or this Indenture pursuant to which the redemption shall occur, (ii) the redemption date, (iii) the principal amount of Securities of that series to be redeemed, and (iv) the redemption price.

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If the Company elects to reduce the principal amount of Securities of any series to be redeemed pursuant to mandatory redemption provisions thereof, it shall notify the Trustee of the amount of, and the basis for, any such reduction. If the Company elects to credit against any such mandatory redemption Securities it has not previously delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, it shall deliver such Securities with such notice.
Section 3.02    Selection of Securities to Be Redeemed.
If less than all the Securities of any series are to be redeemed, or purchased in an offer to purchase at any time, the Trustee shall select the Securities of that series to be redeemed or purchased as follows: (1) if the Securities of such series are listed on any national securities exchange, in compliance with the requirements of the principal national securities exchange on which the Securities of that series are listed, or (2) if the Securities of that series are not listed on a national securities exchange, on a pro rata basis, by lot or by such other method as the Trustee deems fair and appropriate. In the event of a partial redemption or purchase by lot, the particular Securities to be redeemed or purchased will be selected not less than 30 nor more than 60 days prior to the redemption or purchase date by the Trustee from Securities of that series outstanding and not previously called for redemption.
The Trustee shall notify the Company promptly in writing of the Securities or portions of Securities to be called for redemption or purchase and, in the case of any Securities selected for partial redemption or purchase, the principal amount thereof to be redeemed or purchased. Except as otherwise provided as to any particular series of Securities, Securities and portions thereof that the Trustee selects shall be in amounts equal to the minimum authorized denomination for Securities of the series to be redeemed or purchased or any integral multiple thereof, except that if all of the Securities of the series are to be redeemed or purchased, the entire outstanding amount of the Securities of the series held by such Holder, even if not equal to the minimum authorized denomination for the Securities of that series, shall be redeemed or purchased. Provisions of this Indenture that apply to Securities called for redemption also apply to portions of Securities called for redemption.
Section 3.03    Notice of Redemption.
Except as otherwise provided as to any particular series of Securities, at least 30 days but not more than 60 days before a redemption date, the Company shall mail a notice of redemption to each Holder whose Securities are to be redeemed.
The notice shall identify the Securities of the series to be redeemed and shall state:
(1)    the redemption date;
(2)    the redemption price fixed in accordance with the terms of the Securities of the series to be redeemed, plus accrued interest, if any, to the date fixed for redemption (the “redemption price”);

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(3)    if any Security is being redeemed in part, the portion of the principal amount of such Security to be redeemed and that, after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion will be issued upon cancellation of the original Securities;
(4)    the name and address of the Paying Agent;
(5)    that Securities called for redemption must be surrendered to the Paying Agent to collect the redemption price;
(6)    that, unless the Company defaults in payment of the redemption price, interest on Securities called for redemption ceases to accrue on and after the redemption date;
(7)    the CUSIP number, if any, of the Securities to be redeemed;
(8)    the paragraph of the Securities and/or the section of the Indenture pursuant to which the Securities called for redemption are being redeemed; and
(9)    that no representation is made as to the correctness or accuracy of the CUSIP number, if any, listed in such notice or printed on the Securities.
At the Company’s request, the Trustee shall give the notice of redemption in the Company’s name and at its expense, provided, however, that the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee, at least 45 days prior to the redemption date, an Officers’ Certificate requesting that the Trustee give such notice and setting forth the information to be stated in such notice as provided in the preceding paragraph. The notice mailed in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given whether or not the Holder receives such notice. In any case, failure to give such notice by mail or any defect in the notice of the Holder of any Security shall not affect the validity of the proceeding for the redemption of any other Security.
Section 3.04    Effect of Notice of Redemption.
Except if the giving of a notice of redemption would violate the terms of the Company’s credit agreement, and subject to the subordination provisions of any series of Securities, once notice of redemption is mailed in accordance with Section 3.03 hereof, Securities called for redemption become due and payable on the redemption date for the redemption price. Upon surrender to the Paying Agent, such Securities will be paid at the redemption price.
Section 3.05    Deposit of Redemption Price.
On or before 10:00 a.m., New York City time, on the redemption or purchase date, the Company shall deposit with the Trustee or Paying Agent (or, if the Company or any Affiliate is the Paying Agent, shall segregate and hold in trust) money sufficient to pay the redemption or purchase price of all Securities called for redemption on that date other than Securities that have previously been delivered by the Company to the Trustee for cancellation. The Paying Agent shall return to the Company any money not required for that purpose.

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If the Company complies with the provisions of the preceding paragraph, on and after the redemption or purchase date, interest shall cease to accrue on the Securities (or the portions thereof) called for redemption or purchase. If a Security is redeemed or purchased on or after an interest record date but on or prior to the related interest payment date, then any accrued and unpaid interest shall be paid to the Person in whose name such Securities were registered at the close of business on such record date. If any Securities called for redemption or purchase shall not be so paid upon surrender for redemption because of the failure of the Company to comply with the preceding paragraph, interest shall be paid on the unpaid principal, from the redemption or purchase date until such principal is paid, and to the extent lawful on any interest not paid on such unpaid principal, in each case at the rate provided in accordance with the terms of the Securities of the series to be redeemed.
Section 3.06    Securities Redeemed or Purchased in Part.
Upon surrender of a Security that is redeemed or purchased in part, the Company shall issue and the Trustee shall authenticate for the Holder at the expense of the Company a new Security of same series equal in principal amount to the unredeemed or unpurchased portion of the Security surrendered.
ARTICLE 4
COVENANTS
Section 4.01    Payment of Securities.
The Company shall pay or cause to be paid the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the Securities on the dates and in the manner provided in this Indenture and the Securities. Principal, premium, if any, and interest shall be considered paid on the date due if the Paying Agent, if other than the Company or an Affiliate, holds as of 10:00 a.m., New York City time, on that date immediately available funds designated for and sufficient to pay all principal, premium, if any, and interest then due.
To the extent lawful, the Company shall pay interest on overdue principal and overdue installments of interest at the rate per annum borne by the applicable series of Securities.
Section 4.02    Maintenance of Office or Agency.
The Company shall maintain in the City of New York, an office or agency (which may be an office of the Trustee or an affiliate of the Trustee or Registrar) where Securities may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities and this Indenture may be served. The Company shall give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the location, and any change in the location, of such office or agency. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices, and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee.
The Company may also from time to time designate one or more other offices or agencies where the Securities may be presented or surrendered for any or all such purposes and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission

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shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligation to maintain an office or agency in the City of New York for such purposes. The Company shall give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the location of any such other office or agency.
The Company hereby designates the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee as one such office or agency of the Company in accordance with Section 2.03.
Section 4.03    Reports.
The Company shall deliver to the Trustee within 15 days after it files them with the Commission copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents, and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Commission may by rules and regulations prescribe) that the Company is required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act; provided, however the Company shall not be required to deliver to the Trustee any materials for which the Company has sought and received confidential treatment by the Commission. The Company also shall comply with the other provisions of TIA Section 314(a).
Delivery of such reports, information, and documents to the Trustee is for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officers’ Certificates).
Section 4.04    Compliance Certificate.
(a)    The Company or any Guarantors shall deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company, an Officers’ Certificate stating that a review of the activities of the Company and its Subsidiaries during the preceding fiscal year has been made under the supervision of the signing Officers (one of whom shall be the principal executive officer, principal financial officer, or principal accounting officer of the Company) with a view to determining whether the Company has kept, observed, performed, and fulfilled its obligations under this Indenture, and further stating, as to each such Officer signing such certificate, that to his or her knowledge the Company has kept, observed, performed, and fulfilled each and every covenant contained in this Indenture and is not in default in the performance or observance of any of the terms, provisions, and conditions of this Indenture (or, if a Default or Event of Default shall have occurred, describing all such Defaults or Events of Default of which he or she may have knowledge and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto) and that to his or her knowledge no event has occurred and remains in existence by reason of which payments on account of the principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities is prohibited or if such event has occurred, a description of the event and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.
(b)    The Company shall, so long as any of the Securities are outstanding, deliver to the Trustee, forthwith upon becoming aware of any Default or Event of Default, an Officers’ Certificate specifying such Default or Event of Default and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.

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Section 4.05    Taxes.
The Company shall pay prior to delinquency, all material taxes, assessments, and governmental levies except such as are contested in good faith by appropriate proceedings or where the failure to effect such payment is not adverse in any material respect to the Holders of any Securities.
Section 4.06    Stay, Extension and Usury Laws.
The Company and any Guarantors covenant (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that they shall not at any time insist upon, plead, or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay, extension or usury law wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, that may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture; and the Company and each Guarantor (to the extent that they may lawfully do so) hereby expressly waive all benefits or advantages of any such law, and covenant that they shall not, by resort to any such law, hinder, delay, or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but shall suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law has been enacted.
Section 4.07    Calculation of Original Issue Discount.
If, as of the end of any fiscal year of the Company, the Company has any outstanding Original Issue Discount Securities under the Indenture, the Company shall file with the Trustee promptly following the end of such fiscal year (i) a written notice specifying the amount of original issue discount (including daily rates and accrual periods) accrued on such Original Issue Discount Securities as of the end of such year and (ii) such other specific information relating to such original issue discount as may then be required under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended from time to time.
ARTICLE 5
SUCCESSORS
Section 5.01    When Company May Merge, Etc.
In addition to provisions applicable to a particular series of Securities, the Company shall not directly or indirectly: (i) consolidate or merge with or into another Person (whether or not the Company is the surviving Person) or (ii) sell, assign, transfer, lease, convey, or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of the properties or assets of the Company and its Subsidiaries in one or more related transactions to any Person unless:
(1)    either (x) the Company is the surviving Person; or (y) the Person formed by or surviving any such consolidation or merger (if other than the Company) or to which such sale, assignment, transfer, lease, conveyance, or other disposition shall have been made is a Person organized or existing under the laws of the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia;
(2)    the Person formed by or surviving any such consolidation or merger (if other than the Company) or the Person to which such sale, assignment, transfer, lease,

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conveyance, or other disposition shall have been made assumes (by supplemental indenture reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee) all the obligations of the Company under the Securities and this Indenture; and
(3)    immediately after the transaction no Default or Event of Default exists.
The Company shall deliver to the Trustee on or prior to the consummation of the proposed transaction an Officers’ Certificate to the foregoing effect and an Opinion of Counsel stating that the proposed transaction and such supplemental indenture comply with this Indenture.
Section 5.02    Successor Person Substituted.
Upon any consolidation or merger, or any sale, assignment, transfer, conveyance, or other disposition (other than by lease) of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company in accordance with Section 5.01 hereof, the successor Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Company is merged or to which such sale, assignment, transfer, conveyance, or other disposition is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for (so that from and after the date of such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, or other disposition, the provisions of this Indenture referring to the “Company” shall refer instead to the successor Person and not to the Company), and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor Person had been named as the Company herein; provided, however, that the predecessor Company shall not be relieved from the obligation to pay principal of, and interest on, any Securities except in the case of a sale, assignment, transfer, conveyance, or other disposition of all or substantially all of the Company’s assets that meets the requirements of Section 5.01 hereof.
ARTICLE 6
DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES
Section 6.01    Events of Default.
An “Event of Default” occurs with respect to Securities of any particular series if, unless as otherwise provided in the establishing Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate, or supplemental indenture hereto:
(1)    the Company defaults in the payment of interest on any Security of that series when the same becomes due and payable and the Default continues for a period of 30 days;
(2)    the Company defaults in the payment, when due, of the principal of, or premium, if any, on any Security of that series when the same becomes due and payable at Maturity, upon redemption (including in connection with any offer to purchase under the terms of such Securities) or otherwise;
(3)    an Event of Default, as defined in the Securities of that series, occurs and is continuing, or the Company fails to comply with any of its other agreements in the

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Securities of that series or in this Indenture with respect to that series and the Default continues for the period and after the notice specified below;
(4)    the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law:
a)    commences a voluntary case;
b)    consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case;
c)    consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property;
d)    makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or
e)    admits in writing its inability generally to pay its debts as the same become due.
(5)    a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any Bankruptcy Law that:
a)    is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case;
b)    appoints a Custodian of the Company or for all or substantially all of its property; or
c)    orders the liquidation of the Company; and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 60 days.
(6)    any other Event of Default provided with respect to Securities of that series which is specified in a Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate, or supplemental indenture establishing that series of Securities.
The term “Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors. The term “Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator, or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.
A Default under clause (3) above is not an Event of Default with respect to a particular series of Securities until the Trustee or the Holders of at least 50% in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of that series notify the Company of the Default and the Company does not cure the Default within 60 days after receipt of the notice. The notice must specify the Default, demand that it be remedied and state that the notice is a “Notice of Default.” Such notice shall be given by the Trustee if so requested in writing by the Holders of 50% of the principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of that series.

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Section 6.02    Acceleration.
If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any series (other than an Event of Default specified in clauses (4) and (5) of Section 6.01) occurs and is continuing, the Trustee by notice to the Company, or the Holders of at least 50% in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of that series by notice to the Company and the Trustee, may, subject to any prior notice requirements set forth in any supplemental indenture, declare the unpaid principal (or, in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities, such lesser amount as may be provided for in such Securities) of and any accrued interest on all the Securities of that series to be due and payable on the Securities of that series. Upon such declaration the principal (or such lesser amount) and interest shall be due and payable immediately. If an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or (5) of Section 6.01 occurs, all of such amount shall become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or any Holder. The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of that series by notice to the Trustee may rescind an acceleration and its consequences if the rescission would not conflict with any judgment or decree and if all existing Events of Default with respect to that series have been cured or waived except nonpayment of principal (or such lesser amount) or interest that has become due solely because of the acceleration.
Section 6.03    Other Remedies.
If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any series occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may pursue any available remedy to collect the payment of principal or interest on the Securities of that series or to enforce the performance of any provision of the Securities of that series or this Indenture.
The Trustee may maintain a proceeding even if it does not possess any of the Securities or does not produce any of them in the proceeding. A delay or omission by the Trustee or any Securityholder in exercising any right or remedy accruing upon an Event of Default shall not impair the right or remedy or constitute a waiver of or acquiescence in the Event of Default. All remedies are cumulative to the extent permitted by law.
Section 6.04    Waiver of Past Defaults.
Subject to Section 6.02, the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of any series, by notice to the Trustee, may on behalf of the Holders of the Securities of that series, waive an existing Default or Event of Default with respect to that series and its consequences except a continuing Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal (including any mandatory sinking fund or like payment) or, premium, if any, or interest on any Security of that series (including in connection with an offer to purchase); provided, however, that the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from any such acceleration. Upon any such waiver, such Default shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

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Section 6.05    Control by Majority.
The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of any series may direct the time, method, and place of conducting any proceeding for exercising any remedy with respect to that series available to the Trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on it. However, the Trustee may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or this Indenture, that the Trustee determines may be unduly prejudicial to the rights of other Holders of Securities of that series, or that may involve the Trustee in personal liability. The Trustee may take any other action which it deems proper that is not inconsistent with any such direction. Notwithstanding any provision to the contrary in this Indenture, the Trustee shall not be obligated to take any action with respect to the provisions of Section 6.02 unless directed to do so pursuant to this Section 6.05.
Section 6.06    Limitation on Suits.
A Holder of Securities of any series may not pursue a remedy with respect to this Indenture or the Securities unless:
(1)    the Holder gives to the Trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to that series;
(2)    the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of that series make a written request to the Trustee to pursue the remedy;
(3)    such Holder or Holders offer, and, if requested, provide to the Trustee indemnity satisfactory to the Trustee against any loss, liability, or expense;
(4)    the Trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after receipt of the request and the offer and, if requested, the provision of indemnity; and
(5)    during such 60-day period the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of that series do not give the Trustee a direction inconsistent with the request.
No Holder of any series of Securities may use this Indenture to prejudice the rights of another Holder of Securities of that series or to obtain a preference or priority over another Holder of Securities of that series.
Section 6.07    Rights of Holders to Receive Payment.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture, the right of any Holder of a Security to receive payment of principal, premium, if any, and interest on the Security, on or after the respective due dates expressed in the Security (including in connection with any offer to purchase), or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates, shall not, except as provided in the subordination provisions, if any, applicable to such Security, be impaired or affected without the consent of the Holder.
Section 6.08    Collection Suit by Trustee.

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If an Event of Default specified in Section 6.01(1) or (2) hereof occurs and is continuing with respect to Securities of any series, the Trustee may recover judgment in its own name and as trustee of an express trust against the Company for the whole amount of principal (or such portion of the principal as may be specified as due upon acceleration at that time in the terms of that series of Securities), premium, if any, and interest, remaining unpaid on the Securities of that series then outstanding, together with (to the extent lawful) interest on overdue principal and interest, and such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and, to the extent lawful, expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements, and advances of the Trustee, its agents, and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.07 hereof.
Section 6.09    Trustee May File Proofs of Claim.
The Trustee may file such proofs of claim and other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements, and advances of the Trustee, its agents, and counsel, and any other amounts due to the Trustee under Section 7.07 hereof) and the Securityholders allowed in any judicial proceedings relative to the Company (or any other obligor on the Securities), its creditors, or its property and shall be entitled to and empowered to collect, receive, and distribute any money or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims, and any custodian in any such judicial proceedings is hereby authorized by each Holder to make such payments to the Trustee and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Holders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due to it for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements, and advances of the Trustee, its agent, and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.07 hereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment, or composition affecting the Securities or the rights of any Holder thereof, or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding.
Section 6.10    Priorities.
If the Trustee collects any money with respect to Securities of any series pursuant to this Article, it shall pay out the money in the following order:
FIRST: to the Trustee, its agents, and attorneys for amounts due under Section 7.07 hereof, including payment of all compensation, expense and liabilities incurred, and all advances made, by the Trustee and the costs and expenses of collection;
SECOND: in accordance with the subordination provisions, if any, of the Securities of such series;
THIRD: to Securityholders for amounts due and unpaid on the Securities of such series for principal, premium, if any, and interest, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on the Securities of such series for principal, premium, if any, and interest, respectively; and

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FOURTH: to the Company or to such party as a court of competent jurisdiction shall direct.
The Trustee may fix a record date and payment date for any payment to Holders of Securities of any series pursuant to this Section. The Trustee shall notify the Company in writing reasonably in advance of any such record date and payment date.
Section 6.11    Undertaking for Costs.
In any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as a Trustee, a court in its discretion may require the filing by any party litigant in the suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of the suit, and the court in its discretion may assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees and expenses, against any party litigant in the suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defense made by the party litigant. This Section does not apply to a suit by the Trustee, a suit by a Holder pursuant to Section 6.07 hereof or a suit by Holders of more than 10% in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of any series.
ARTICLE 7
TRUSTEE
Section 7.01 Duties of Trustee.
(a)    If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee shall exercise such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs.
(b)    Except during the continuance of an Event of Default known to the Trustee:
(i)    the duties of the Trustee shall be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture or the TIA and the Trustee need perform only those duties that are specifically set forth in this Indenture or the TIA and no others, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and
(ii)    in the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; however, in the case of any certificates or opinions which by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall examine the certificates and opinions to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture (but need not confirm or investigate the accuracy of mathematical calculations or other facts stated therein).

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(c)    The Trustee may not be relieved from liabilities for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:
(i)    this paragraph does not limit the effect of paragraph (b) of this Section;
(ii)    the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a responsible officer of the Trustee, unless it is proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts; and
(iii)    the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in accordance with a direction received by it pursuant to Section 6.05 hereof.
(d)    Whether or not therein expressly so provided, every provision of this Indenture that in any way relates to the Trustee is subject to paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this Section.
(e)    No provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or incur any liability. The Trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any right or power, including without limitation, the provisions of Section 6.05 hereof, unless it receives security and indemnity satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense.
(f)    The Trustee shall not be liable for interest on any money received by it except as the Trustee may agree in writing with the Company. Absent written instruction from the Company, the Trustee shall not be required to invest any such money. Money held in trust by the Trustee need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.
Section 7.02    Rights of Trustee.
Subject to TIA Section 315(a) through (d):
(a)    The Trustee may conclusively rely on any document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper person. The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, other evidence of indebtedness, or other paper or document, but the Trustee, in its discretion, may make such further inquiry or investigation into such facts or matters as it may see fit.
(b)    Before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting, it may require an Officers’ Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel, or both. The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in reliance on such Officers’ Certificate or Opinion of Counsel.
(c)    The Trustee may act through agents and shall not be responsible for the misconduct or negligence of any agent appointed with due care.

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(d)    The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith which it believes to be authorized or within its rights or powers under the Indenture, unless the Trustee’s conduct constitutes negligence.
(e)    Unless otherwise specifically provided in this Indenture, any demand, request, direction, or notice from the Company shall be sufficient if signed by an Officer of the Company.
(f)    The Trustee may consult with counsel of its selection and may rely upon the advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel.
(g)    The Trustee shall not be deemed to have notice of any Default or Event of Default unless a Trust Officer of the Trustee has actual knowledge thereof or unless written notice of any event that is in fact such a default is received by the Trustee at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and such notice references the Securities generally or the Securities of a particular series, as the case may be, and this Indenture.
(h)    The permissive rights of the Trustee to do things enumerated in this Indenture shall not be construed as duties.
Section 7.03    Individual Rights of Trustee.
The Trustee in its individual or any other capacity may become the owner or pledgee of Securities and may otherwise deal with the Company or an Affiliate with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee. Any Agent may do the same with like rights. However, the Trustee is subject to TIA Sections 310(b) and 311.
Section 7.04    Trustee’s Disclaimer.
The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or adequacy of this Indenture or the Securities, it shall not be accountable for the Company’s use of the proceeds from the Securities, and it shall not be responsible for any statement in the Securities other than its certificate of authentication.
Section 7.05    Notice of Defaults.
If a Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of any series occurs and is continuing and if it is known to the Trustee, the Trustee shall mail to all Holders of Securities of that series a notice of the Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs. Except in the case of a Default or Event of Default in payment on any such Security, the Trustee may withhold the notice if and so long as a committee of its Trust Officers in good faith determines that withholding the notice is in the interests of such Securityholders.
Section 7.06    Reports by Trustee to Holders.
Within 60 days after May 15 in each year, the Trustee with respect to any series of Securities shall mail to Holders of Securities of that series as provided in TIA Section 313(c) a brief report

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dated as of such May 15 that complies with TIA Section 313(a) (if such report is required by TIA Section 313(a)). The Trustee shall also comply with TIA Section 313(b)(2).
A copy of each report at the time of its mailing to Securityholders shall be mailed to the Company and filed with the Commission and each stock exchange on which any of the Securities are listed, as required by TIA Section 313(d). The Company shall notify the Trustee when the Securities are listed on any stock exchange, and of any delisting thereof.
Section 7.07    Compensation and Indemnity.
The Company shall pay to the Trustee from time to time such compensation as shall be agreed upon in writing for its services hereunder. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee upon written request for all reasonable out-of-pocket expenses incurred by it. Such expenses shall include the reasonable compensation and out-of-pocket expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel.
The Company shall indemnify each of the Trustee or any predecessor Trustee for any loss, liability, damage, claims or expenses, including taxes (other than taxes based upon, measured by or determined by the income of the Trustee) incurred by it, without negligence or bad faith on its part, in connection with the acceptance or administration of this Indenture and its duties hereunder. The Trustee shall notify the Company of any claim for which it may seek indemnity promptly upon obtaining knowledge thereof; provided, however, that any failure to so notify the Company shall not relieve the Company of its indemnity obligations hereunder unless the Company shall have been prejudiced by such failure to notify. The Company shall defend the claim and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense. The Trustee may have separate counsel and the Company shall pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel. The Company need not pay for any settlement made without its consent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld.
To secure the Company’s payment obligations in this Section, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities on all money or property held or collected by the Trustee in its capacity as Trustee, except money or property held in trust to pay principal and interest on particular Securities. Such lien will survive the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture.
If the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services after an Event of Default specified in Section 6.01(4) or (5) hereof occurs, the expenses and the compensation for the services will be intended to constitute expenses of administration under any applicable Bankruptcy Law.
This Section 7.07 shall survive the resignation or removal of the Trustee and the termination of this Indenture.
Section 7.08    Replacement of Trustee.
A resignation or removal of the Trustee with respect to one or more or all series of Securities and appointment of a successor Trustee shall become effective only upon the successor Trustee’s acceptance of appointment as provided in this Section.

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The Trustee may resign with respect to one or more or all series of Securities by so notifying the Company in writing. The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of any series may remove the Trustee as to that series by so notifying the Trustee in writing and may appoint a successor Trustee with the Company’s consent. The Company may remove the Trustee with respect to one or more or all series of Securities if:
(1)    the Trustee fails to comply with Section 7.10 hereof;
(2)    the Trustee is adjudged a bankrupt or an insolvent;
(3)    a receiver or other public officer takes charge of the Trustee or its property; or
(4)    the Trustee becomes incapable of acting.
If, as to any series of Securities, the Trustee resigns or is removed or if a vacancy exists in the office of Trustee for any reason, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor Trustee for that series. Within one year after the successor Trustee with respect to any series takes office, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of that series may appoint a successor Trustee to replace the successor Trustee appointed by the Company. If a successor Trustee as to a particular series does not take office within 60 days after the retiring Trustee resigns or is removed, the retiring Trustee, the Company, or the Holders of at least 10% in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of that series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee.
If the Trustee fails to comply with Section 7.10 hereof with respect to any series, any Holder of Securities of that series who satisfies the requirements of TIA Section 310(b) may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor Trustee for that series.
A successor Trustee as to any series of Securities shall deliver a written acceptance of its appointment to the retiring Trustee and to the Company. Immediately after that, the retiring Trustee shall promptly transfer all property held by it as Trustee to the successor Trustee (subject to the lien provided for in Section 7.07 hereof), the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective, and the successor Trustee shall have all the rights, powers, and duties of the Trustee under this Indenture as to that series. The successor Trustee shall mail a notice of its succession to the Holders of Securities of that series.
Notwithstanding replacement of the Trustee pursuant to this Section 7.08, the Company’s obligations under Section 7.07 hereof shall continue for the benefit of the retiring trustee.
In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the retiring Trustee and each successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto wherein each successor Trustee shall accept such appointment and that (1) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to transfer and confirm to, and to

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vest in, each successor Trustee all the rights, powers, trusts, and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor Trustee relates, (2) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts, and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series as to which the retiring Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the retiring Trustee, and (3) shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary or desirable to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee; provided, however, that nothing herein or in such supplemental Indenture shall constitute such Trustee co-trustees of the same trust and that each such Trustee shall be trustee of a trust hereunder separate and apart from any trust hereunder administered by any other such Trustee.
Upon the execution and delivery of such supplemental Indenture the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective to the extent provided therein and each such successor Trustee, without any further act, deed, or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts, and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor Trustee relates.
Section 7.09    Successor Trustee by Merger, etc.
If the Trustee as to any series of Securities consolidates, merges, or converts into, or transfers all or substantially all of its corporate trust business to, another corporation, the successor corporation without any further act shall be the successor Trustee as to that series.
Section 7.10    Eligibility; Disqualification.
Each series of Securities shall always have a Trustee who satisfies the requirements of TIA Section 310(a)(1), (2) and (5). The Trustee as to any series of Securities shall always have a combined capital and surplus of at least $25,000,000 as set forth in its most recent published annual report of condition. The Trustee is subject to TIA Section 310(b).
Section 7.11    Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company.
The Trustee is subject to TIA Section 311(a), excluding any creditor relationship listed in TIA Section 311(b). A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to TIA Section 311(a) to the extent indicated therein.
ARTICLE 8
SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE
Section 8.01    Satisfaction and Discharge.
This Indenture will be discharged and will cease to be of further effect with respect to any series of Securities issued hereunder, when:
(a)    either:

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(i)    all Securities of such series that have been authenticated (except lost, stolen or destroyed Securities that have been replaced or paid and Securities for whose payment money has theretofore been deposited in trust and thereafter repaid to the Company) have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation; or
(ii)    all Securities of such series that have not been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation have become due and payable by reason of the making of a notice of redemption or otherwise or will become due and payable within one year and the Company or any Guarantor has irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds in trust solely for the benefit of the Holders, cash in U.S. dollars, non-callable U.S. Government Obligations, foreign government obligations, or a combination thereof, in such amounts as will be sufficient without consideration of any reinvestment of interest, to pay and discharge the entire indebtedness on the Securities not delivered to the Trustee for cancellation for principal, premium and accrued interest to the date of Maturity or redemption:
(b)    no Default or Event of Default with respect to such series of Securities shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit or shall occur as a result of such deposit and such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, any other material instrument to which the Company or any Guarantor is a party to or by which the Company or any Guarantor is bound;
(c)    the Company or any Guarantor has paid or caused to be paid all sums payable by it under this Indenture with respect to such series of Securities; and
(d)    the Company has delivered irrevocable instructions to the Trustee under this Indenture to apply the deposited money toward the payment of the Securities of such series at Maturity or the redemption date, as the case may be.
In addition, the Company must deliver an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel to the Trustee stating that all conditions precedent to satisfaction and discharge have been satisfied.
Notwithstanding, the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to a series of Securities, if money shall have been deposited with the Trustee pursuant to subclause (b) of clause (1) of this Section, the provisions of Section 8.06 shall survive.
For purposes of this Indenture, the term “foreign government obligations” means, with respect to Securities of any series that are denominated in a currency other than United States dollars, (a) direct obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged, which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof; or (b) obligations of a person controlled or supervised by or acting as an agency or instrumentality of that government, the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by that government, which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.
Section 8.02    Option to Effect Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance.

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Unless Section 8.03 or 8.04 is otherwise specified to be inapplicable to Securities of a series, the Company may, at the option of its Board of Directors evidenced by a resolution set forth in an Officers’ Certificate, at any time, elect to have either Section 8.03 or 8.04 hereof be applied to all outstanding Securities of any such series upon compliance with the conditions set forth below in this Article 8.
Section 8.03    Legal Defeasance and Discharge.
Upon the Company’s exercise under Section 8.02 hereof of the option applicable to this Section 8.03, the Company and any Guarantor shall, subject to the satisfaction of the conditions set forth in Section 8.05 hereof, be deemed to have been discharged from their respective obligations with respect to all outstanding Securities of any series on the date the conditions set forth below are satisfied (hereinafter, “Legal Defeasance”). For this purpose, Legal Defeasance means that the Company and any Guarantor shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness represented by the outstanding Securities of a series, which shall thereafter be deemed to be “outstanding” only for the purposes of Section 8.06 hereof and the other Sections of this Indenture referred to in (a) and (b) below, and to have satisfied all its other obligations under such Securities and this Indenture (and the Trustee, on demand of and at the expense of the Company, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging the same), except for the following provisions which shall survive until otherwise terminated or discharged hereunder: (a) the rights of Holders of outstanding Securities to receive solely from the trust fund described in Section 8.05 hereof, and as more fully set forth in such Section, payments in respect of the principal of, premium, and interest on such Securities when such payments are due, (b) the Company’s obligations with respect to such Securities under Article 2 and Section 4.02 hereof, (c) the rights, powers, trusts, duties, and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and the Company’s or any Guarantors’ obligations in connection therewith, and (d) this Article 8. Subject to compliance with this Article 8, the Company may exercise its option under this Section 8.03 notwithstanding the prior exercise of its option under Section 8.04 hereof.
Section 8.04    Covenant Defeasance.
Upon the Company’s exercise under Section 8.02 hereof of the option applicable to this Section 8.04, the Company or any Guarantors shall, subject to the satisfaction of the conditions set forth in Section 8.05 hereof, be released from their respective obligations under the covenants contained in Sections 4.03, 4.04, 4.05, 4.06, and 4.07, and Section 5.01 hereof with respect to the outstanding Securities of any series on and after the date the conditions set forth in Section 8.05 are satisfied (hereinafter, “Covenant Defeasance”), and the Securities of such series shall thereafter be deemed not “outstanding” for the purposes of any direction, waiver, consent, or declaration, or act of Holders (and the consequences of any thereof) in connection with such covenants, but shall continue to be deemed “outstanding” for all other purposes hereunder (it being understood that such Securities shall not be deemed outstanding for accounting purposes). For this purpose, Covenant Defeasance means that, with respect to the outstanding Securities of any series, the Company or any Guarantors may omit to comply with and shall have no liability in respect of any term, condition, or limitation set forth in any such covenant, whether directly or indirectly, by reason of any reference elsewhere herein to any such covenant or by reason of any reference in any such covenant to any other provision herein or in any other document and such omission to comply shall not constitute

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a Default or an Event of Default under Section 6.01 hereof, but, except as specified above, the remainder of this Indenture and such Securities shall be unaffected thereby. In addition, upon the Company’s exercise under Section 8.02 hereof of the option applicable to this Section 8.04 hereof, subject to the satisfaction of the conditions set forth in Section 8.05 hereof, Sections 6.01(3) through 6.01(6) hereof shall not constitute Events of Default.
Section 8.05    Conditions to Legal or Covenant Defeasance.
The following shall be the conditions to the application of either Section 8.03 or 8.04 hereof to the outstanding Securities of any series. In order to exercise either Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance:
(a)    the Company must irrevocably deposit with the Trustee, in trust, for the benefit of the Holders, cash in United States dollars, non-callable U.S. Government Obligations, foreign government obligations, or a combination thereof, in such amounts as will be sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants, to pay the principal of, premium, and interest on the outstanding Securities on the stated date for payment thereof or on the applicable redemption date, as the case may be;
(b)    in the case of an election under Section 8.03 hereof, the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel in the United States reasonably acceptable to the Trustee confirming that (A) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling or (B) since the date hereof, there has been a change in the applicable federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such Opinion of Counsel shall confirm that, the Holders of the outstanding Securities will not recognize income, gain, or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such Legal Defeasance and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such Legal Defeasance had not occurred;
(c)    in the case of an election under Section 8.04 hereof, the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel in the United States reasonably acceptable to the Trustee confirming that the Holders of the outstanding Securities will not recognize income, gain, or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such Covenant Defeasance and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such Covenant Defeasance had not occurred;
(d)    no Default or Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit (other than a Default or Event of Default resulting from the incurrence of indebtedness all or a portion of the proceeds of which will be used to defease the Securities pursuant to this Article 8 concurrently with such incurrence) or insofar as Sections 6.01(4) or 6.01(5) hereof is concerned, at any time in the period ending on the 91st day after the date of deposit;
(e)    such Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance shall not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, any material agreement or instrument (other

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than this Indenture) to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is bound;
(f)    the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of preferring the Holders over any other creditors of the Company or with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying, or defrauding any other creditors of the Company; and
(g)    the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for or relating to the Legal Defeasance or the Covenant Defeasance have been complied with.
Section 8.06    Deposited Money and Government Securities to be Held in Trust; Other Miscellaneous Provisions.
Subject to Section 8.07 hereof, all money and non-callable U.S. Government Obligations or foreign government obligations (including the proceeds thereof) deposited with the Trustee (or other qualifying trustee, collectively for purposes of this Section 8.06, the “Trustee”) pursuant to Section 8.01 or Section 8.05 hereof in respect of the outstanding Securities shall be held in trust and applied by the Trustee, in accordance with the provisions of such Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (including the Company acting as Paying Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the Holders of such Securities of all sums due and to become due thereon in respect of principal, premium, if any, and interest, but such money need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.
The Company shall pay and indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee, or other charge imposed on or assessed against the cash or non-callable U.S. Government Obligations or foreign government obligations deposited pursuant to Section 8.05 hereof or the principal and interest received in respect thereof other than any such tax, fee, or other charge which by law is for the account of the Holders of the outstanding Securities.
Anything in this Article 8 to the contrary notwithstanding, the Trustee shall deliver or pay to the Company from time to time upon the request of the Company any money or non-callable U.S. Government Obligations or foreign government obligations held by it as provided in Section 8.05 hereof which, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee (which may be the opinion delivered under Section 8.05(a) hereof), are in excess of the amount thereof that would then be required to be deposited to effect an equivalent Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance.
Section 8.07    Repayment to Company.
Any money deposited with the Trustee or any Paying Agent, or then held by the Company, in trust for the payment of the principal of, premium, if any, or interest on any Securities and remaining unclaimed for two years after such principal and premium, if any, or interest has become due and payable shall be paid to the Company on its request or (if then held by the Company) shall be discharged from such trust; and the Holder of such Securities shall thereafter look only to the

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Company for payment thereof, and all liability of the Trustee or such Paying Agent with respect to such trust money, and all liability of the Company as trustee thereof, shall thereupon cease; provided, however, that the Trustee or such Paying Agent, before being required to make any such repayment, may at the direction and expense of the Company cause to be published once, in the New York Times and The Wall Street Journal (national edition), notice that such money remains unclaimed and that, after a date specified therein, which shall not be less than 30 days from the date of such notification or publication, any unclaimed balance of such money then remaining will be repaid to the Company.
Section 8.08    Reinstatement.
If the Trustee or Paying Agent is unable to apply any United States dollars or non-callable U.S. Government Securities in accordance with Section 8.03 or 8.04 hereof, as the case may be, by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, then the Company’s obligations under this Indenture and the Securities shall be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to Section 8.03 or 8.04 hereof until such time as the Trustee or Paying Agent is permitted to apply all such money in accordance with Section 8.03 or 8.04 hereof, as the case may be; provided, however, that, if the Company makes any payment of principal of, premium, if any, or interest on any Securities following the reinstatement of its obligations, the Company shall be subrogated to the rights of the Holders of such Securities to receive such payment from the money held by the Trustee or Paying Agent.
ARTICLE 9
SUPPLEMENTS, AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS
Section 9.01    Without Consent of Holders.
The Company and the Trustee as to any series of Securities may supplement or amend this Indenture or the Securities without notice to or the consent of any Securityholder:
(1)    to cure any ambiguity, defect, or inconsistency;
(2)    to comply with Article 5;
(3)    to comply with any requirements of the Commission in connection with the qualification of this Indenture under the TIA;
(4)    to add or change any provisions of this Indenture to facilitate the issuance of, or to liberalize the terms of, Securities issued in bearer form, or to permit or facilitate the issuance of Securities in uncertificated form, provided that this action will not adversely affect the interests of the Holders of the Securities of any series in any material respect;
(5)    to add to, change or eliminate any of the provisions of this Indenture in respect of one or more series of Securities, provided, however, that any such addition, change, or elimination (A) shall neither (i) apply to any Security of any series created prior to the

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execution of such supplemental indenture and entitled to the benefit of such provision nor (ii) modify the rights of the Holder of any such Security with respect to such provision or (B) shall become effective only when there is no outstanding Security of any series created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture and entitled to the benefit of such provision;
(6)    to add to existing covenants additional covenants for the benefit of the Holders of all or any series of Securities, to surrender any right or power conferred upon the Company in this Indenture, or to add events of default for the benefit of Holders of all or any series of Securities;
(7)    to secure previously unsecured Securities;
(8)    to make any change that does not adversely affect in any material respect the interests of the Securityholders of any series;
(9)    to establish additional series of Securities as permitted by Section 2.01 hereof;
(10)    to establish the form or terms of Securities of any series, including the provisions and procedures, if applicable, for the conversion or exchange of the Securities into other securities or property;
(11)    to evidence and provide for the acceptance or appointment of a successor Trustee or facilitate the administration of the trusts under this Indenture by more than one Trustee;
(12)    to make any provision with respect to the conversion or exchange of rights of Holders pursuant to the requirements of this Indenture;
(13)    to close this Indenture with respect to the authentication and delivery of additional series of Securities or to qualify, or maintain qualification of, this Indenture under the TIA; or
(14)    to supplement any of the provisions of this Indenture to the extent necessary to permit or facilitate defeasance and discharge of any series of Securities, provided that the action shall not adversely affect the interests of the Holders of Securities of any series in any material respect.
Section 9.02    With Consent of Holders.
Subject to Section 6.07, the Company and the Trustee as to any series of Securities may amend this Indenture or the Securities of that series with the written consent of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of each series affected by the amendment, with each such series voting as a separate class. The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities of any series may also waive compliance in a particular instance by the Company with any provision of this Indenture with respect to that series or the Securities of that series; provided, however, that without the consent of each Securityholder affected, an amendment or waiver may not:

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(1)    reduce the percentage of the principal amount of Securities whose Holders must consent to an amendment or waiver;
(2)    reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous provision;
(3)    reduce the rate of, or change the time for payment of interest on, any Security;
(4)    reduce the principal of or change the fixed Maturity of any Security or waive a redemption payment or alter the redemption provisions with respect thereto;
(5)    make any Security payable in money other than that stated in the Security (including defaulted interest);
(6)    reduce the principal amount of Original Issue Discount Securities payable upon acceleration of the Maturity thereof;
(7)    make any change in Section 6.04, 6.07 or this Section 9.02;
(8)    waive a default in the payment of the principal of, or interest on, any Security, except to the extent otherwise provided for in Section 6.02 hereof;
(9)    change the place of payment on a Security;
(10)    change the currency or currencies of payment of the principal of, and any premium, make-whole payment, interest, or additional amounts on, any Security;
(11)    reduce the percentage of Holders of Securities whose consent is needed to modify or amend this Indenture;
(12)    reduce the percentage of the Holders of outstanding Securities of any series necessary to modify or amend this Indenture, to waive compliance with provisions of this Indenture or defaults and their consequences under this Indenture, or to reduce the quorum or voting requirements contained in this Indenture;
(13)    make any change that adversely affects the right to convert or exchange any Security other than as permitted by this Indenture or decrease the conversion or exchange rate or increase the conversion or exchange price of any such Security; or
(14)    waive a redemption payment with respect to any Security.
An amendment or waiver under this Section that waives, changes, or eliminates any covenant or other provision of this Indenture that has expressly been included solely for the benefit of one or more particular series of Securities, or that modifies the rights of the Holders of Securities of such series with respect to such covenant or other provision, shall be deemed not to affect the rights under this Indenture of the Holders of Securities of any other series.

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It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Holders under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if such consent approves the substance thereof.
The Company shall mail supplemental indentures to Holders upon request. Any failure of the Company to mail such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture or waiver.
Section 9.03    Revocation and Effect of Consents.
Until an amendment or waiver becomes effective, a consent to it by a Holder of a Security is a continuing consent by the Holder and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security, even if notation of the consent is not made on any Security; provided, however, any such Holder or subsequent Holder may revoke the consent as to his Security or portion of a Security if the Trustee receives the written notice of revocation before the date on which the amendment, supplement, or waiver becomes effective. An amendment, supplement, or waiver shall become effective in accordance with its terms and thereafter shall bind every Holder of Securities of that series.
Section 9.04    Notation on or Exchange of Securities.
If an amendment, supplement, or waiver changes the terms of a Security: (a) the Trustee may require the Holder of the Security to deliver it to the Trustee, the Trustee may, at the written direction of the Company and at the Company’s expense, place an appropriate notation on the Security about the changed terms and return it to the Holder and the Trustee may place an appropriate notation on any Security thereafter authenticated; or (b) if the Company or the Trustee so determines, the Company in exchange for the Security shall issue and the Trustee shall authenticate a new Security that reflects the changed terms.
Failure to make the appropriate notation or issue a new Security shall not affect the validity and effect of such amendment, supplement, or waiver.
Section 9.05    Trustee to Sign Amendments, etc.
Subject to the preceding sentence, the Trustee shall sign any amendment or supplemental Indenture if the same does not adversely affect the rights, duties, liabilities, or immunities of the Trustee. The Trustee may, but shall not be obligated to, execute any such amendment, supplement, or waiver that affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties, liabilities, or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise. The Company may not sign an amendment or supplemental Indenture until its Board of Directors approves it. In executing any amended or supplemental Indenture, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive and (subject to Section 7.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon, in addition to the documents required by Section 11.04 hereof, an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel stating that the execution of such amended or supplemental Indenture is authorized or permitted by this Indenture.
ARTICLE 10
GUARANTEES

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Section 10.01    Guarantee.
Any series of Securities may be guaranteed by one or more of the Guarantors. The terms and the form of any such Guarantee will be established in the manner contemplated by Section 2.01 for that particular series of Securities.
ARTICLE 11
MISCELLANEOUS
Section 11.01    Indenture Subject to Trust Indenture Act.
This Indenture is subject to the provisions of the TIA that are required to be part of this Indenture, and shall, to the extent applicable, be governed by such provisions.
Section 11.02    Notices.
Any notice or communication is duly given if in writing and delivered in person or overnight air courier guaranteeing next-day delivery, addressed as follows:
If to the Company and/or any Guarantor:

Carbonite, Inc.
2 Avenue de Lafayette
Boston, Massachusetts 02111
Attention: General Counsel
Telephone: (617) 587-1104

with a copy to:
Foley & Lardner LLP
111 Huntington Avenue
Boston, Massachusetts 02199
Attention: Susan E. Pravda, Esq.
Telephone: (617) 342-4000

If to the Trustee:
                
                     
The Company or the Trustee by notice to the other may designate additional or different addresses for subsequent notices or communications.
All notices and communications (other than those sent to Holders) shall be deemed to have been duly given: at the time delivered by hand, if personally delivered and signed for; and the next

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business day after timely delivery to the courier, if sent by overnight air courier guaranteeing next-day delivery and signed for.
Any notice or communication to a Securityholder shall be mailed by first-class mail, certified or registered, return receipt requested, or by overnight air courier guaranteeing next day delivery to his address shown on the register kept by the Registrar. Failure to mail a notice or communication to a Security holder or any defect in it shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other Securityholders. If the Company mails a notice or communication to Securityholders, it shall mail a copy to the Trustee at the same time. Any notice or communication shall also be mailed to any Person described in TIA Section 313(c), to the extent required by the TIA.
If a notice or communication is mailed in the manner provided above within the time prescribed, it is duly given, whether or not the addressee receives it.
Section 11.03    Communication By Holders With Other Holders.
Holders may communicate pursuant to TIA Section 312(b) with other Holders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or the Securities. The Company, the Trustee, the Registrar, and anyone else shall have the protection of TIA Section 312(c).
Section 11.04    Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent.
Upon any request or application by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee:
(a)    an Officers’ Certificate, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee (which shall include the statements set forth in Section 11.05 hereof) stating that, in the opinion of the signers, all conditions precedent and covenants, if any, provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with; and
(b)    an Opinion of Counsel, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee (which shall include the statements set forth in Section 11.05 hereof) stating that, in the opinion of such counsel, such action is authorized or permitted by this Indenture and that all such conditions precedent have been complied with.
Section 11.05    Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion.
Each certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (other than the certificate provided pursuant to TIA Section 314(a)(4)) shall include:
(1)    a statement that the Person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition;
(2)    a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

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(3)    a statement that, in the opinion of such Person, he or she has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him or her to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and
(4)    a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such Person, such condition or covenant has been complied with; provided, however, that with respect to matters of fact an Opinion of Counsel may rely on an officer’s certificate or certificates of public officials.
Section 11.06    Rules by Trustee and Agents.
The Trustee as to Securities of any series may make reasonable rules for action by or at a meeting of Holders of Securities of that series. The Registrar and any Paying Agent or Authenticating Agent may make reasonable rules and set reasonable requirements for their functions.
Section 11.07    Legal Holidays.
A “Legal Holiday” is a Saturday, a Sunday or a day on which banking institutions in the City of New York, New York or at a place of payment are authorized by law, regulation, or executive order to remain closed. If a payment date is a Legal Holiday at a place of payment, payment may be made at that place on the next succeeding day that is not a Legal Holiday, and no interest shall accrue for the intervening period.
Section 11.08    No Recourse Against Others.
No past, present or future director, officer, employee, manager, securityholder, or incorporator, as such, of the Company or any successor Person shall have any liability for any obligations of the Company or any Guarantor under any series of Securities, any guarantees thereof, or the Indenture or for any claim based on, in respect of, or by reason of such obligations or their creation. Each Securityholder by accepting a Security waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration of issuance of the Securities.
Section 11.09    Counterparts.
This Indenture may be executed by the parties hereto in separate counterparts, each of which when so executed shall be deemed to be an original and all of which taken together shall constitute one and the same agreement.
Section 11.10    Governing Law.
The internal laws of the State of New York shall govern and be used to construe this Indenture and the Securities (including any guarantees thereof), without giving effect to the applicable principles of conflicts of laws to the extent that the application of the laws of another jurisdiction would be required thereby.

41




Section 11.11    Submission to Jurisdiction; Service of Process; Waiver of Jury Trial
Each party hereto hereby submits to the nonexclusive jurisdiction of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York and of any New York State Court sitting in New York City for purposes of all legal proceedings arising out of or relating to this Indenture, the Securities (including any guarantee thereof) or the transactions contemplated hereby and thereby. Each party hereto irrevocably waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any objection which it may now or hereafter have to the laying of the venue of any such proceeding brought in such a court and any claim that any such proceeding brought in such a court has been brought in an inconvenient forum. Process in any such suit, action or proceeding may be served on any party anywhere in the world, whether within or without the State of New York. Without limiting the foregoing, the parties agree that service of process upon such party at the address referred to in Section 11.02, together with written notice of such service to such party, shall be deemed effective service of process upon such party. Each of the parties hereto irrevocably waives any and all rights to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to this Indenture, the Securities (including any guarantee thereof) or the transactions contemplated hereby and thereby.
Section 11.12    Severability.
In case any provision in this Indenture or in the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality, and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.
Section 11.13    Effect of Headings, Table of Contents, etc.
The Article and Section headings herein and the table of contents are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.
Section 11.14    Successors and Assigns.
All covenants and agreements of the Company in this Indenture and the Securities shall bind its successors and assigns. All agreements of the Trustee in this Indenture shall bind its successor. All agreements of any Guarantor in this Indenture shall bind its successors, except as otherwise provided by the terms hereof.
Section 11.15    No Interpretation of Other Agreements.
This Indenture may not be used to interpret another indenture, loan, or debt agreement of the Company or any Subsidiary or of any Person. Any such indenture, loan, or debt agreement may not be used to interpret this Indenture.
[Signature Page Follows]



42




IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed, all as of the date first above written.

COMPANY:
CARBONITE, INC.
 
 
 
 
By:
 
Name:
 
Title:
 
TRUSTEE:
 
 
 
 
By:
 
Name:
 
Title:
 
GUARANTORS:
[•]
 
 
 
By:
 
Name:
 
Title:
 

43

Exhibit
Exhibit 5.1
http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=12291473&doc=6
June 1, 2018
 
ATTORNEYS AT LAW
111 HUNTINGTON AVENUE
BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS 02199
617.342.4000 TEL
617.342.4001 FAX
foley.com

Carbonite, Inc.
2 Avenue de Lafayette
Boston, Massachusetts 02111

 
Ladies and Gentlemen:
We have acted as counsel for Carbonite, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), in connection with the preparation of a Registration Statement on Form S‑3 (the “Registration Statement”) to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), relating to the issuance and sale by the Company from time to time of: (i) the Company’s common stock, $0.01 par value (the “Common Stock”), (ii) one or more classes or series of the Company’s preferred stock, $0.01 par value (the “Preferred Stock”), (iii) one or more series of the debt securities of the Company (collectively, the “Debt Securities”), (iv) warrants to purchase Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Debt Securities, or any combination of those securities (the “Warrants”); (v) units consisting of Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Debt Securities, and/or Warrants (the “Units”); and (vi) the Common Stock, Preferred Stock or Debt Securities, that may be issued upon the exercise of the Warrants or in connection with Units, whichever is applicable. The Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Debt Securities, Warrants, and Units are hereinafter referred to each as a “Security” and collectively as the “Securities.” The Securities may be issued and sold or delivered from time to time as set forth in the Registration Statement, any amendment thereto, the prospectus constituting part thereof (the “Prospectus”) and supplements to the Prospectus (the “Prospectus Supplements”).
The Debt Securities will be issued pursuant to one or more Indentures (each, an “Indenture”), each to be between the Company and a financial institution identified therein as the trustee (the “Trustee”).
The Warrants will be issued under one or more Warrant Agreements (each, a “Warrant Agreement”), each to be between the Company and a counterparty or counterparties identified therein or a financial institution identified therein as the Warrant Agent.
The Units will be issued under one or more Unit Agreements (each, a “Unit Agreement”), each to be between the Company and a counterparty or counterparties identified therein.
As counsel to the Company in connection with the proposed issuance and sale of the Securities, we have examined: (i) the Registration Statement, including the Prospectus, and the exhibits (including those incorporated by reference) constituting a part of the Registration Statement; (ii) the Company’s Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws; and


AUSTIN
BOSTON
CHICAGO
DALLAS
DENVER
DETROIT
HOUSTON
JACKSONVILLE
LOS ANGELES
MADISON

MEXICO CITY
MIAMI
MILWAUKEE
NEW YORK
ORLANDO

SACRAMENTO
SAN DIEGO
SAN FRANCISCO
SILICON VALLEY
TALLAHASSEE

TAMPA
WASHINGTON, D.C.
BRUSSELS
TOKYO





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(iii) such other proceedings, documents and records as we have deemed necessary to enable us to render this opinion.
In our examination of the above-referenced documents, we have assumed the genuineness of all signatures, the legal capacity and competency of all natural persons executing documents, the authenticity of all documents, certificates and instruments submitted to us as originals and the conformity with the originals of all documents submitted to us as copies. We have also assumed that (i) the Registration Statement, and any amendments thereto (including post-effective amendments), will comply with all applicable laws; (ii) a Prospectus Supplement, if required, will have been prepared and filed with the SEC describing the Securities offered thereby; (iii) all Securities will be issued and sold in compliance with applicable securities laws and in the manner stated in the Registration Statement and any applicable Prospectus Supplement; (iv) any indenture providing for the issuance of Debt Securities, together with any supplemental indenture or officer’s certificate setting forth the terms of a series of Debt Securities to be issued under the indenture, will each be duly authorized, executed and delivered by the parties thereto in substantially the form reviewed by us; (v) a Form T-1 will be filed with the SEC with respect to the trustee executing any indenture or any supplemental indenture to such indenture; (vi) a definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement with respect to any Securities offered will have been duly authorized and validly executed and delivered by the Company and the other parties thereto; (vii) any Securities issuable upon conversion, exchange or exercise of any Security being offered will have been duly authorized, created and, if appropriate, reserved for issuance upon such conversion, exchange or exercise; (viii) with respect to shares of Common Stock or Preferred Stock offered, there will be sufficient shares of Common Stock or Preferred Stock authorized under the Company’s Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as may be amended, and not otherwise reserved for issuance; and (ix) if any Common Stock or Preferred Stock offered is to be certificated, certificates in the form required under the Delaware General Corporation Law representing such shares are duly executed and countersigned.
In connection with the issuance of the Debt Securities, we have assumed further that (i) at the time of execution, authentication, issuance, and delivery of any Debt Securities, the related Indenture will have been duly authorized, executed, and delivered by the Company; and (ii) the execution, delivery, and performance by the Company of the Indenture and the Debt Securities will not violate the laws of any jurisdiction (provided that as to the Delaware General Corporation Law and the Federal laws of the United States we make no such assumption).
In connection with the issuance of Warrants, we have assumed further that (i) at the time of execution, countersignature, issuance, and delivery of any Warrants, the related Warrant Agreement will have been duly authorized, executed, and delivered by the Company; and (ii) the execution, delivery, and performance by the Company of such Warrant Agreement and such Warrants will not violate the laws of any jurisdiction (provided that as to the Delaware General Corporation Law and the Federal laws of the United States we make no such assumption).
In connection with the issuance of the Units, we have assumed further that (i) at the time of execution, countersignature, issuance, and delivery of any Units, the related Unit Agreement will have


AUSTIN
BOSTON
CHICAGO
DALLAS
DENVER
DETROIT
HOUSTON
JACKSONVILLE
LOS ANGELES
MADISON

MEXICO CITY
MIAMI
MILWAUKEE
NEW YORK
ORLANDO

SACRAMENTO
SAN DIEGO
SAN FRANCISCO
SILICON VALLEY
TALLAHASSEE

TAMPA
WASHINGTON, D.C.
BRUSSELS
TOKYO





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been duly authorized, executed, and delivered by the Company; and (ii) the execution, delivery, and performance by the Company of such Unit Agreement and such Units will not violate the laws of any
jurisdiction (provided that as to the Delaware General Corporation Law and the Federal laws of the United States we make no such assumption).
Based upon and subject to the foregoing and the other matters set forth herein, and having regard for such legal considerations as we deem relevant, we are of the opinion that:
1.    With respect to the Common Stock, assuming (i) the taking by the Board of Directors of the Company of all necessary corporate action to authorize and approve the issuance of the Common Stock; and (ii) due issuance and delivery of the Common Stock upon payment therefor in accordance with the applicable definitive underwriting agreement, if applicable, and Prospectus or Prospectus Supplement approved by the Board of Directors of the Company, the Common Stock will be validly issued, fully paid, and nonassessable.
2.    With respect to the Preferred Stock, assuming (i) the taking by the Board of Directors of the Company of all necessary corporate action to authorize and approve the issuance and terms of the Preferred Stock and the terms of the offering thereof; (ii) due filing and acceptance of the Certificate of Designation with the Delaware Secretary of State setting forth the terms of such Preferred Stock; and (iii) due issuance and delivery of the Preferred Stock upon payment therefor in accordance with the applicable definitive underwriting agreement, if applicable, and Prospectus or Prospectus Supplement approved by the Board of Directors of the Company, the Preferred Stock will be validly issued, fully paid, and nonassessable.
3.    With respect to the Debt Securities, assuming (i) the taking by the Board of Directors of the Company of all necessary corporate action to approve the issuance and terms of the Debt Securities, the terms of the offering thereof, and related matters; (ii) the terms of such Debt Securities and of their issuance and sale have been established in conformity with the applicable Indenture so as not to violate any applicable law or result in a default under or breach of any agreement or instrument binding upon the Company and so as to comply with any requirements or restrictions imposed by any court or governmental entity having jurisdiction over the Company (iii) the due execution, authentication, issuance, and delivery of such Debt Securities upon payment of the consideration therefor provided for in a definitive purchase, underwriting, or similar agreement, as applicable, and Prospectus or Prospectus Supplement approved by the Board of Directors of the Company, and otherwise in accordance with the provisions of the applicable Indenture and such definitive purchase, underwriting, or similar agreement, as applicable; and (iv) the conditions in the applicable Indenture have been satisfied, such Debt Securities will constitute valid and legally binding obligations of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms.
4.    With respect to the Warrants, assuming (i) the Registration Statement (including any amendments thereto) shall become effective under the Securities Act; (ii) the taking of all necessary corporate action by the Board of Directors of the Company to approve the execution and delivery of a Warrant Agreement and issuance of the Warrants; and (iii) the due execution, countersignature, issuance, and delivery of such Warrants upon payment of the consideration therefor provided for in a definitive purchase, underwriting, or similar agreement, as applicable, and Prospectus or Prospectus Supplement

AUSTIN
BOSTON
CHICAGO
DALLAS
DENVER
DETROIT
HOUSTON
JACKSONVILLE
LOS ANGELES
MADISON

MEXICO CITY
MIAMI
MILWAUKEE
NEW YORK
ORLANDO

SACRAMENTO
SAN DIEGO
SAN FRANCISCO
SILICON VALLEY
TALLAHASSEE

TAMPA
WASHINGTON, D.C.
BRUSSELS
TOKYO





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approved by the Board of Directors of the Company, and otherwise in accordance with the provisions of the applicable Warrant Agreement and such definitive purchase, underwriting, or similar agreement, as applicable; and (iv) the conditions in the applicable Warrant Agreement have been satisfied, such Warrants will constitute valid and legally binding obligations of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms.
5.    With respect to the Units, assuming (i) the taking of all necessary corporate action by the Board of Directors of the Company to approve the execution and delivery of a Unit Agreement and issuance of the Units; (ii) the due execution, countersignature, issuance, and delivery of the Units upon payment of the consideration therefor provided for in a definitive purchase, underwriting, or similar agreement, as applicable, and Prospectus or Prospectus Supplement approved by the Board of Directors of the Company, and otherwise in accordance with the provisions of the applicable Unit Agreement and such definitive purchase, underwriting, or similar agreement, as applicable; (iii) the conditions in the applicable Unit Agreement have been satisfied; (iv) if such Unit Agreements relate to the issuance and sale of Common Stock, the actions described in paragraph 1 above have been taken; (v) if such Unit Agreements relate to the issuance and sale of Preferred Stock, the actions described in paragraph 2 above have been taken; (vi) if such Unit Agreements relate to the issuance and sale of Debt Securities, the actions described in paragraph 3 above have been taken; and (vii) if such Unit Agreements relate to the issuance and sale of Warrants, the actions described in paragraph 4 above have been taken, such Units will constitute valid and legally binding obligations of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms.
The opinions set forth in paragraphs 3 through 5 above are subject to (i) the effects of bankruptcy, insolvency, fraudulent conveyance, reorganization, moratorium, or other similar laws now or hereafter in effect relating to or affecting creditors’ rights generally; (ii) the effects of general equitable principles, including, without limitation, concepts of materiality, reasonableness, good faith and fair dealing, and the possible unavailability of specific performance or injunctive relief, whether enforcement is considered in a proceeding in equity or law; (iii) the discretion of the court before which any proceeding for enforcement may be brought; and (iv) the unenforceability under certain circumstances under law or court decisions of provisions providing for the indemnification of or contribution to a party with respect to a liability where such indemnification or contribution is contrary to the public policy.
We are qualified to practice law in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and we do not purport to be experts on the law other than that of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law and the Federal laws of the United States of America. We are not qualified to practice law in the State of Delaware. We express no opinion with respect to the laws of any jurisdiction other than the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law and the Federal laws of the United States of America.


AUSTIN
BOSTON
CHICAGO
DALLAS
DENVER
DETROIT
HOUSTON
JACKSONVILLE
LOS ANGELES
MADISON

MEXICO CITY
MIAMI
MILWAUKEE
NEW YORK
ORLANDO

SACRAMENTO
SAN DIEGO
SAN FRANCISCO
SILICON VALLEY
TALLAHASSEE

TAMPA
WASHINGTON, D.C.
BRUSSELS
TOKYO





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June 1, 2018
Page 5

This opinion is for your benefit in connection with the Registration Statement and may be relied upon only by you and by persons entitled to rely upon it pursuant to applicable provisions of the Securities Act. We hereby consent to the reference to our firm under the caption “Legal Matters” in the Prospectus which is filed as part of the Registration Statement, and to the filing of this opinion as an exhibit to the Registration Statement. In giving this consent, we do not admit that we are “experts” within the meaning of Section 11 of the Securities Act or within the category of persons whose consent is required by Section 7 of the Securities Act.
Very truly yours,
 
 
 
/s/ Foley & Lardner LLP
 





AUSTIN
BOSTON
CHICAGO
DALLAS
DENVER
DETROIT
HOUSTON
JACKSONVILLE
LOS ANGELES
MADISON

MEXICO CITY
MIAMI
MILWAUKEE
NEW YORK
ORLANDO

SACRAMENTO
SAN DIEGO
SAN FRANCISCO
SILICON VALLEY
TALLAHASSEE

TAMPA
WASHINGTON, D.C.
BRUSSELS
TOKYO




Exhibit


Exhibit 23.1

CONSENT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

We consent to the incorporation by reference in this Registration Statement on Form S-3 of our reports dated March 12, 2018, relating to the consolidated financial statements of Carbonite, Inc. and subsidiaries, and the effectiveness of Carbonite, Inc. and subsidiaries’ internal control over financial reporting, appearing in the Annual Report on Form 10-K of Carbonite, Inc. for the year ended December 31, 2017, and to the reference to us under the heading "Experts" in the Prospectus, which is part of this Registration Statement.

/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP

Boston, Massachusetts
June 1, 2018



Exhibit


Exhibit 23.2

CONSENT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

We consent to the reference to our firm under the caption "Experts" in this Registration Statement (Form S-3) and related Prospectus of Carbonite, Inc. for the registration of common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants and units and to the incorporation by reference therein of our report dated March 16, 2017 (except for the effects of the adoption of ASU 2016-09 as discussed in Note 2, as to which the date is March 12, 2018), with respect to the consolidated financial statements of Carbonite, Inc., as of and for the two years ended December 31, 2016 included in its Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2017, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.


/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

Boston, Massachusetts
June 1, 2018